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TRANSPORT & MOBILITY109Below: Tony Tylerof the principles clearly states that airlines should payfor their emissions once -not several times over. Butalready we see the UK's Air Passenger Duty collecting£2.5 billion, which is enough to offset all UKemissions related to aviation four times over. Europe'splanned inclusion of aviation into its emissions tradingscheme makes no provision for the elimination of anyEuropean taxes introduced for climate changepurposes. And we must ensure that any globaleconomic measures will dedicate the monies collectedto environmental projects. If governments simplychannel the funds into general coffers they areundermining the integrity and effectiveness of suchschemes.OPERATIONS AND INFRASTRUCTUREThe second and third pillars of our strategy, operationsand infrastructure, are a good example of wheretargeted investment could yield carbon-reductiondividends. One of the best things that we could do tomake flying more environmentally efficient is to take acoordinated approach to modernising air trafficmanagement. There are two well-established projectsthat are not progressing fast enough. The US NextGenair traffic management programme will generate hugeefficiencies, but funding is being held ransom to short-sighted party politics. Meanwhile, the Single EuropeanSky project has the potential to save 16 million tonnesof CO2 emissions annually. Its progress is also delayedbecause of lack of leadership at state level to see thebig picture and drive improvements. Even as theseprojects inch forward, we have a chance to avoidsimilar problems in Asia. Its skies are getting morecrowded, and we urge governments to start thinking ofa Seamless Asian Sky before the problems becomeacute. TECHNOLOGY The first pillar of our strategy, technology, will be aneven bigger driver of reduced emissions. Today'saircraft and engines are over 70 per cent more fuelefficient than the first jet aircraft. Each newgeneration of aircraft brings about improvements inthe order of 15-25 per cent. And airlines are investingUS$1.3 trillion in 12,000 new planes over the nextdecade. The competitive nature of the airlinebusiness ensures a ready market if a new product canprovide significant cost savings. Our friends at Boeingand Airbus have been doing this for years. And Ibelieve that the introduction of new competition fromother manufacturers will accelerate innovation-which is always a good thing. But technology is notjust about the aircraft and engines. It is also abouthow we fuel the fleet. I believe that the mostsignificant leap forward in the industry'senvironmental performance in the coming years willbe the commercial use of sustainable biofuels.Sustainable biofuels are not a theoretical solution.They are a tested reality. ASTM International'sCommittee on Petroleum Products and Lubricants hasapproved a new specification for hydroprocessedrenewable jet fuel. At least five airlines -KLM,Lufthansa, Finnair, Interjet and AeroMexico -havealready used them on passenger services.Over their life-cycle, sustainable biofuels could reduceour carbon footprint by up to 80 per cent. That is agame changer. But despite the quick progress to date,some major hurdles still remain. One of the highest isto get the big oil companies to come on board withserious investments. Oil companies make good moneyon aviation's US$200 billion fuel spend. Now we needthem to invest to make commercialisation possible atprices that make sense for an industry with margins inthe range of 1 per cent. And we also need governmentsto encourage the development of sustainable biofuelsfor aviation with appropriate fiscal and legal incentives.This is not a plea for handouts, but for strategicdecisions to support investments that foster the growthof green economies that include aviation.PARTNERSHIPThe environment is one of IATA's top priorities and Iam certainly proud of IATA's role as a catalyst for someof the good work that is being done. Of course, thelong-term sustainability of all of these efforts isdependant on strong partnerships held together by acommon vision.Our message for governmentsattending COP-17 is reassurance that aviation remainscommitted to its ambitious emissions reduction goals.Cooperation and partnership -with industry andamong governments -is the key to achieving them. The place to solidify these is ICAO which is the onlyorganisation that can set a global strategic frameworkfor aviation -including for economic measures.Aviation is an instrument of peace and a generator forprosperity -both material and of the human spirit. It isthe collective responsibility of industry andgovernment to ensure that is can continue to fulfill thisunique role rule as a catalyst for sustainabledevelopment with the highest levels of environmentalresponsibility. nABOUT THE AUTHORTony Tyler became the sixth Director General and CEOof IATA on 1 July 2011. Mr Tyler began his career atJohn Swire & Sons in Hong Kong 1977. From 1978he moved within the Swire Group to Cathay PacificAirways, occupying various senior positions at theairline before eventually serving as its Chief Executivefrom July 2007 to March 2011. Mr Tyler served onthe IATA Board of Governors from 2007 to 2011 andwas its Chairman from June 2009 to June 2010." "AVIATION SUPPORTS THE DEVELOPMENT OF A GLOBAL EMISSIONS TRADING OR COMPENSATIONSCHEME

ith the global population forecast toreach 9.3 billion by 2050, demand onthe planet's natural resources for water,food, fuel and other essentials, showsno signs of slowing. Instead, demographic changeand rising income will result in increased pressureson the environment to meet the needs andaspirations of billions.Against this background, and in the wake of the worsteconomic crisis in generations, another approach togrowth and development is urgently needed; one thatcan incorporate social and environmental concerns.This new model has been identified as the GreenEconomy, and is rapidly gaining ground as our mostviable option for a sustainable future. The movetowards a Green Economy that can deliver on all threepillars of sustainability -economic development,social equity and environmental protection -is clearlya collective responsibility. International organisationsand governments all have their key roles to play. But it is often bottom-up initiatives, from businessesand civil society on the ground, that make the mostimmediate difference. Tourism, made up of countlesssmall and medium enterprises, the majority of which are closely linked to local communities,therefore has an important responsibility to adopt sustainable business models. Encouragingly,recent years have seen tourism businesses adopting concrete, innovative approaches to deliverpositive economic results, while positively enhancingoverall sustainability. Right:Peanuts areground into paste and sold locallyBelow:A restaurant run by women in Côte d'Ivoire ADVANCING THEGREENECONOMY: INNOVATIONIN THE TOURISM SECTOR110TOURISMDR TALEB RIFAI,SECRETARY-GENERAL, THE UNITED NATIONS WORLD TOURISM ORGANIZATION (UNWTO)WPhoto: UN Photo/Ky Chung