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" "A SECONDKYOTO PERIODWITH A VERY LIMITED NUMBEROF PARTIES PARTICIPATING IS CLEARLY INSUFFICIENT TOSOLVE THE PROBLEM OFGLOBAL WARMINGlimate action is more urgent then ever.Energy-related CO2 emissions reached arecord high of 30.6 gigatonnes in 2010,according to the International EnergyAgency (IEA). The IEA also warned that the window ofopportunity for reducing emissions is closing since asmuch of 80 per cent of projected emissions from thepower sector in 2020 are already locked in.Another study published in Scienceshows that overthe last three decades climate change has resulted incuts to global wheat and corn output by as much as theentire annual corn crop of Mexico or the wheat crop ofFrance, and has driven up food prices by 20 per centon average. In the US the wheat harvest is threatenedby droughts and extreme heat, Japan had the wettestAugust ever, central regions in China have suffered theworst drought for 50 years, the Horn of Africa, India.the list continues. According to the meteorologicalreports it has been yet another record-breakingsummer when it comes to "global weirding" -increasingly extreme and unstable weather caused byglobal warming. A single weather event can not beattributed to global warming. But the point is thatthese are not single events. On the contrary: they followa pattern which scientists have been pointing to foryears: increasingly extreme temperatures and weatherevents caused by a general heating of the atmosphere. And this is why it is so crucial that progress is made atthe COP in Durban. The Copenhagen Accord andCancun Agreements took us an important step forward.Today, 90 countries in the developed and developingworlds alike have set domestic targets for reducing orrestricting their emissions. Even if these pledges are notyet enough to keep global warming below the agreedceiling of 2°C above the pre-industrial temperature, theyare - during a severe economic downturn - no smallachievement. In Durban we must further develop thiscommon toolbox. We must, for instance, bring newinstitutions like the Green Climate Fund and theTechnology Mechanism into existence in the real world,not just on the printed pages of UN documents. The process to design the Green Climate Fund by theTransitional Committee was launched at the end ofApril. We look forward to working together with ourpartners to design a 21st century financing instrumentthat can catalyse investments in adaptation, inprotecting forests and in other forms of climate changemitigation and low-carbon development. As the world'spopulation continues to grow, more than a billion morepeople will enter the middle class by 2050. Again, thisis to be welcomed. But, the fact is that, if they use theproduction technology and adopt the consumptionpatterns that prevail in industrialised countries today,we would need at least two and a half planets to meetmankind's demands. Building a ''green growth'' model, adoptingsustainable patterns of consumption and production,and improving energy access are the obvious answersto this challenge. The Rio+20 conference in 2012 willbe an important opportunity to accelerate this process.The European Union acknowledges that ever moreefforts are needed and already advocates adding someimportant new tools to the global climate toolbox, suchas setting up new sectoral carbon market mechanismsand tackling international aviation and maritimeemissions. The EU has been pioneering emissionstrading for several years now and our positiveexperiences make us strongly believe in carbonmarkets as one of the main instruments to cut globalemissions at least cost for our economies. And the EUis no longer alone with this; big players across theworld, like New Zealand, Australia, California, SouthA ROADMAPFOR GLOBALCONSENSUS028GLOBAL VOICESCONNIE HEDEGAARD, EUROPEAN COMMISSIONER FOR CLIMATE ACTIONC

GLOBAL VOICES029Below: Connie HedegaardKorea and China are all applying or preparing their ownemission trading systems.The EU's emissions trading system (EU ETS) is a "capand trade" system covering the emissions of more than11,000 heavy power and industrial installations. Anannually decreasing emission cap applies to the wholeof these installations. Within this cap, companiesreceive emission allowances which they can sell to orbuy from one another as needed. Every year, allinstallations covered have to surrender one allowance forevery tonne of CO2 emitted. If a company reduces itsemissions, it can keep the spare allowances to cover itsfuture needs or else sell them to another company thatis short of allowances. The flexibility that trading bringsensures that emissions are cut where it costs least to doso. Since 2005, annual average emissions perinstallation have gone down by more than 8 per cent.As of next year, the EU ETS will also include aviationemissions from all flights to and from European airports.As much as the EU prefers global action, we cannotdefend that aviation is exempted from contributingbecause they cannot agree internationally. This is whythe EU decided to take this step forward in 2008 whilewe will continue to fight for global regulation of aviationlike at the next UN climate negotiations in Durban.Energy efficiency is another important tool for reducingemissions, which is increasingly applied across theworld. Energy-related emissions account for two thirdsof global emissions. In the EU, the 27 member stateshave committed to improving the EU's overall energyefficiency by 20 per cent. The EU's partners in China, India and the US are alsotaking measures to reduce energy consumption. Energyefficiency is about cutting high energy costs; it is aboutsecuring energy supply; but it also greatly contributes totackling global warming. Meanwhile, investments inclean energy rose globally in 2010 to set a new record ofUS$243 billion, a 30 per cent increase over 2009 -mainly in Europe and Asia. In its authoritative reportabout renewable energy, the IPCC recently showed thatthe world sits on an enormous untapped reserve ofrenewable energy, which could meet as much as 80 percent of the world's energy supplies and reduce theworld's greenhouse gas emissions by up to one third. Itis an excellent example of how climate action iscontributing to securing economic growth and jobs. Theclean energy race is on, and this is good for climate. Letus build on these positive actions across the world tomake the Durban talks a success. Again, reaching an ambitious global agreement onclimate action which bridges the gap between thecurrent pledges and the agreed goal of keeping globalwarming below 2°C unfortunately does not seem to beon the cards for Durban. Neither is it realistic to expectindustrialised countries to commit to a secondcommitment under the Kyoto protocol, as many callfor. Japan, Canada and Russia have now made clearthat they do not intend to be part of the secondcommitment period under the Kyoto protocol. As forthe EU, we are willing to consider a new Kyotocommitment, but only as part of a broader packagewhere important Kyoto rules are improved; new marketmechanisms are created; and other major emitters alsocommit to doing their fair share. Let us be clear on this: a second Kyoto period with avery limited number of Parties participating is clearlyinsufficient to solve the problem of global warming,still less if only the EU, representing barely 11 per centof global emissions, was to sign up for it. Let us insteadtry to get all major emitters on board for a futurelegally-binding global agreement on climate change. InDurban, we should be able to agree on a clear roadmapand timeline which will help us to achieve acomprehensive, robust and legally-binding frameworkfor climate action over the coming years. If we can achieve this, the COP in Durban will serve asa reference point for future climate negotiations. n