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" "GLOBAL AWARENESS OFCLIMATE SCIENCEAND OPTIONS FOR MITIGATION ANDADAPTATION NEEDTO BE MORE EFFECTIVELY DISSEMINATEDACROSS ALLSTAKEHOLDERGROUPSGLOBAL VOICES031Above: Dr R.K. PachauriPhoto: UN Photo/Evan Schneiderthat mitigation has substantial economic potential inthe coming decades with many near-term co-benefits, which include lower levels of air pollutionand associated health benefits, higher levels ofenergy security, higher levels of employment andhigher levels of agricultural production. There are alsozero and negative cost mitigation opportunities in allsectors of the economy, including energy productionand transport. Nonetheless, it is important toremember that the global trajectory which bears thelowest costs requires carbon emissions to peak by2015, and deviating from that would only increasecosts in the future.Changes in lifestyle and behavior patterns cancontribute to climate change mitigation across allsectors and management practices can also have apositive role. There is also a wide variety of nationalpolicies and instruments available to governments tocreate the incentives for mitigation action, includingintegrating climate policies in broader developmentpolicies, regulations and standards, taxes andcharges, voluntary agreements between industry andgovernments, information campaigns and throughresearch, development and demonstration. Their applicability depends on nationalcircumstances and an understanding of theirinteractions. In this context, mobilising finance formitigation is of crucial importance as economic costsare often critical to overcome barriers, and availablefunds encourage and stimulate the development,diffusion and transfer of new technologies. Withoutsustained investment flows and effective technologytransfer, it may be difficult to achieve emissionreduction at a significant scale and to that end,mobilising financing of incremental costs of low-carbon technologies is important.Addressing climate change can be considered anopportunity and an integral element of sustainabledevelopment policies, involving all stakeholders at theinternational, national, regional and local levels. Localauthorities in particular are responsible for overlookingthe correct implementation of mitigation actions and adaptation strategies, and orchestratingappropriate coordination between municipalities,NGOs, businesses, civil society, institutions and theresearch community. Nevertheless, a global response to climate change isalso required to lay the foundations and framework forfuture mitigation efforts. The United NationsFramework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)and its Kyoto Protocol have already stimulated anarray of national policies, created an internationalcarbon market, and established new institutionalmechanisms which may entail a reduction of global GHG emissions at the international levelthrough co-operation. In view of COP17, one shouldremember that achievements of the UNFCCC suggestthat successful agreements are environmentally-effective, cost-effective, incorporate distributionalconsiderations and equity, and are institutionallyfeasible. With this in mind, some analysts andcommentators have stated that it is important for afew concrete and focused steps to be taken at COP17so as to avoid a post-Kyoto vacuum. They state thatthe Parties should work towards creating trust andconfidence in the Adaptation Fund established atCOP16 in Cancun so that it is designed efficientlyand ambitiously, and towards developing institutionalmechanisms so as to create and build capacity, ratherthan merely making money available.Finally, and perhaps most importantly, globalawareness of climate science and options formitigation and adaptation need to be more effectivelydisseminated across all stakeholder groups. To quoteAlbert Einstein: "Problems cannot be solved at thesame level of awareness that created them." In the realm of climate change it is vital that thescientific community challenges the view that sciencehas already revealed all there is to know, and strives toaddress any gaps in existing knowledge as newevidence surfaces. In this endeavour the IPCC iscontributing to the upholding of science as aconstantly evolving enterprise and laying an additionalstone to the understanding of climate change in orderto deal with it. Producing scientific knowledge is a way to raiseawareness and anchor the reality of climate changeand the urgent need to act on it. It is the spread ofrobust knowledge on climate science that will benefitpolicy-making, send appropriate signals to the marketand generate changes in consumption and productionto ultimately provide solutions for the benefit ofhumanity and the ecosystems on this planet.n

CONNECTTHEDOTS: WATER,CLIMATE AND DEVELOPMENTDR ANIA GROBICKI, EXECUTIVE SECRETARY, THE GLOBAL WATER PARTNERSHIP (GWP)ater is central to development. Findingsolutions to global challenges will nothappen without investments in watermanagement. Whether it is foodproduction, industry, tourism, trade, transport, orhealth -water is key. The last decade saw the highest increase in globalaverage temperatures and the highest food prices inhistory. As temperatures rise due to increasedconcentration of greenhouse gases, world leadersexpress consternation when they see the destructionand economic loss that results from floods, droughts,typhoons, and hurricanes. Government officials watch GDP rise and fall with therains and, with it, the ability of their communities torespond to the challenges. These water related hazardsoften lead to higher food prices which in some placeslead to riots, social unrest, political instability, and longlines of destitute families seeking humanitarian relief. CLIMATE CHANGE IS WATER CHANGEClimate change will be felt largely through its impacton water resources. Rising temperatures bringincreased risks of both floods and droughts,threatening lives and national development. Whenwater is in short supply or its availability unpredictable,development is disrupted. Conversely, water isdestructive when it comes in sudden flash floods thatwater infrastructure cannot cope with. Huge economiclosses follow with catastrophic impacts on livelihoods.In many countries in the developing world, GDPfluctuates with annual water availability. The WorldBank estimates the flood damage to be about US$10billion in Pakistan, while in Australia the estimated costof rebuilding Queensland State alone stood atAUS$9.8 billion. Floods in Mozambique in early 2000slowed GDP growth to 2.1 per cent.The bad news is that extreme events are projected toincrease with climate change. While the averagenumber of natural disasters such as earthquakes havebeen fairly constant since 1900, the number ofextreme events such as floods, drought, fires, insectinfestation, and landslides have increased.Sustainable solutions are possible. Countries that havewell developed water management systems withadequate water infrastructure and robust watergovernance institutions are better able to cope withextreme events. Investments in better watermanagement and infrastructure build resilience toclimate change hazards and impacts. BUT WATER IS NEGLECTED IN UNFCCCNEGOTIATIONSDespite overwhelming evidence of the link betweenwater, climate and development, negotiations in the UNFCCC have side-lined water management.Improved water resources management should be seenas part of the solution for both adaptation andmitigation. While water is recognised in Article 4.1 (e) of the Convention, the international discourseon climate change has not provided dedicated space fordiscussions on integrated water resources managementas a solution to the impacts of climate change. The UNFCCC's response to climate change is to dealwith the causes (mitigation) and impacts (adaptation).Unfortunately, this approach has resulted in a divide032WATERWPhoto: Global Water Partnership (GWP)Above:Dr Ania Grobicki