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between those working on mitigation and thoseworking on adaptation. In the process, cross-cuttingissues such as water resources have beenmarginalised in the global negotiations architecture.Water is highly relevant for both adaptation andmitigation. One of the key principles anchored in theUNFCCC is that "policies and measures to protect theclimate system against human-induced changeshould be appropriate for the specific conditions ofeach Party and should be integrated with nationaldevelopment programmes, taking into account thateconomic development is essential for adoptingmeasures to address climate change" (Article 3.4).This integration is not happening: adaptation andmitigation are typically separated into two"investment streams" in national budgets. Countries adapt and build resilience to climatechange through managing water resources well andresponding appropriately to water-related hazards. Onthe mitigation side, interventions, includinghydropower, biofuels, carbon storage and sustainableforest management are all reliant on water resources. Mitigation solutions such as those for ReducingEmissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation(REDD) cannot be effective without water resources.Equally, projects that are promoted as part of thecarbon market mechanisms need water resources.There are also adaptation-mitigation links expressedthrough water such as the energy implications ofdesalination. Constant and reliable water supply isneeded for hydropower production and energyexpansion. Water is used for cooling in energyproduction. A lot of energy is used in water treatmentplants and pumping stations that supply drinking water. While Article 4.1 (e) of the Convention commitsParties to develop appropriate and integrated plans for coastal zone management, water resourcesand agriculture, this has not been reflected in the operational mechanisms being negotiated underthe UNFCCC.At COP 16 in Cancun, six Parties (Ecuador, Sudan,Chile, El Salvador, Sierra Leone and Syria) called forthe inclusion of an agenda item on water in thediscussions under the Scientific Advisory Body for Technological Advice (SBSTA). During the June2011 UNFCCC sessions in Bonn, Parties decided notto have water as a separate agenda item but ratherdiscuss it as part of the UNFCCC's knowledge sharingmechanism on adaptation: the Nairobi WorkProgramme. Relegating water to a knowledge sharingmechanism falls far short of the commitmentsexpressed by Parties in Article 4.1 (e) of theConvention. It also falls short of the commitmentsexpressed in the Cancun Agreement, paragraph 14,which makes references to water resources when itrefers to 'Planning, prioritisation and implementingadaptation actions, including projects andprogrammes.'LINK GLOBAL DISCUSSIONS TO LOCALSOLUTIONS During COP 17 in Durban, Parties have an opportunityto put water at the centre stage of negotiations in waysthat will enable concrete solutions on financing,technology transfer, adaptation and mitigation.Because water management is context specific, globaldiscussions in the UNFCCC need to be linked toregional climate change programmes with political andstakeholder ownership.For instance, the Global Water Partnership and theAfrican Ministers Council on Water (AMCOW), a sub-committee of the African Union, recently launched theWater, Climate and Development Programme.The programme will be implemented at country andtransboundary level and will lead to nationalInvestment and Financing Strategies for WaterSecurity and Climate Resilience Development. Eightcountries, four transboundary river basins and oneshared groundwater aquifer have been identified for in-depth work. This will enable at least 23 African034WATERAbove:Ministers from 9countries during thelaunch of the Water,Climate andDevelopment Programmein August 2011UNFCCC ARTICLE 4.1 (E)All Parties, taking into account their commonbut differentiated responsibilities and theirspecific national and regional developmentpriorities, objectives and circumstances, shall . (e) cooperate in preparing for adaptation to theimpacts of climate change; develop andelaborate appropriate and integrated plans forcoastal zone management, water resourcesandagriculture, and for the protection andrehabilitation of areas, particularly in Africa,affected by drought and desertification, aswell as floods" "COUNTRIESTHAT HAVE WELL DEVELOPEDWATER MANAGEMENTSYSTEMS WITH ADEQUATE WATERINFRASTRUCTUREAND ROBUSTWATER GOVERNANCE INSTITUTIONS ARE BETTER ABLETO COPE WITH EXTREME EVENTS