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between those working on mitigation and thoseworking on adaptation. In the process, cross-cuttingissues such as water resources have beenmarginalised in the global negotiations architecture.Water is highly relevant for both adaptation andmitigation. One of the key principles anchored in theUNFCCC is that "policies and measures to protect theclimate system against human-induced changeshould be appropriate for the specific conditions ofeach Party and should be integrated with nationaldevelopment programmes, taking into account thateconomic development is essential for adoptingmeasures to address climate change" (Article 3.4).This integration is not happening: adaptation andmitigation are typically separated into two"investment streams" in national budgets. Countries adapt and build resilience to climatechange through managing water resources well andresponding appropriately to water-related hazards. Onthe mitigation side, interventions, includinghydropower, biofuels, carbon storage and sustainableforest management are all reliant on water resources. Mitigation solutions such as those for ReducingEmissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation(REDD) cannot be effective without water resources.Equally, projects that are promoted as part of thecarbon market mechanisms need water resources.There are also adaptation-mitigation links expressedthrough water such as the energy implications ofdesalination. Constant and reliable water supply isneeded for hydropower production and energyexpansion. Water is used for cooling in energyproduction. A lot of energy is used in water treatmentplants and pumping stations that supply drinking water. While Article 4.1 (e) of the Convention commitsParties to develop appropriate and integrated plans for coastal zone management, water resourcesand agriculture, this has not been reflected in the operational mechanisms being negotiated underthe UNFCCC.At COP 16 in Cancun, six Parties (Ecuador, Sudan,Chile, El Salvador, Sierra Leone and Syria) called forthe inclusion of an agenda item on water in thediscussions under the Scientific Advisory Body for Technological Advice (SBSTA). During the June2011 UNFCCC sessions in Bonn, Parties decided notto have water as a separate agenda item but ratherdiscuss it as part of the UNFCCC's knowledge sharingmechanism on adaptation: the Nairobi WorkProgramme. Relegating water to a knowledge sharingmechanism falls far short of the commitmentsexpressed by Parties in Article 4.1 (e) of theConvention. It also falls short of the commitmentsexpressed in the Cancun Agreement, paragraph 14,which makes references to water resources when itrefers to 'Planning, prioritisation and implementingadaptation actions, including projects andprogrammes.'LINK GLOBAL DISCUSSIONS TO LOCALSOLUTIONS During COP 17 in Durban, Parties have an opportunityto put water at the centre stage of negotiations in waysthat will enable concrete solutions on financing,technology transfer, adaptation and mitigation.Because water management is context specific, globaldiscussions in the UNFCCC need to be linked toregional climate change programmes with political andstakeholder ownership.For instance, the Global Water Partnership and theAfrican Ministers Council on Water (AMCOW), a sub-committee of the African Union, recently launched theWater, Climate and Development Programme.The programme will be implemented at country andtransboundary level and will lead to nationalInvestment and Financing Strategies for WaterSecurity and Climate Resilience Development. Eightcountries, four transboundary river basins and oneshared groundwater aquifer have been identified for in-depth work. This will enable at least 23 African034WATERAbove:Ministers from 9countries during thelaunch of the Water,Climate andDevelopment Programmein August 2011UNFCCC ARTICLE 4.1 (E)All Parties, taking into account their commonbut differentiated responsibilities and theirspecific national and regional developmentpriorities, objectives and circumstances, shall . (e) cooperate in preparing for adaptation to theimpacts of climate change; develop andelaborate appropriate and integrated plans forcoastal zone management, water resourcesandagriculture, and for the protection andrehabilitation of areas, particularly in Africa,affected by drought and desertification, aswell as floods" "COUNTRIESTHAT HAVE WELL DEVELOPEDWATER MANAGEMENTSYSTEMS WITH ADEQUATE WATERINFRASTRUCTUREAND ROBUSTWATER GOVERNANCE INSTITUTIONS ARE BETTER ABLETO COPE WITH EXTREME EVENTS

countries to benefit from the results of the initiativewhich need to be recognised by the UNFCCC andlinked to global UNFCCC mechanisms.WHAT THE PARTIES SHOULD DODiscussions in the UNFCCC need to elevate waterresources as a cross cutting concern. Water is not asector because it transcends all sectors. Theconsequences of climate change on food security,health, energy, and livelihoods are first and foremostbecause of changes in the state of water resources.Water is the bridge that links adaptation andmitigation. During COP 17, Parties should:n Provide a mandate to discuss water on the agendaof the Adaptation Committee;n Establish a working group on water under theAdaptation Committee to operationalise thereferences to water resources in the CancunAgreement. A core group of water experts shouldbe established to track and monitor activities andadvise the Adaptation Committee on theimplementation of water-related adaptation. ThisWater Experts Group should be linked to theUNFCCC's Subsidiary Bodies for Implementation(SBI) and the Subsidiary Body for Scientific andTechnological Advice (SBSTA);n Call for the operationalisation of references towater resources in paragraph 14 of the CancunAgreement;n Discuss available, new and emerging technologiesrelated to water during discussions on theTechnology Mechanism;n Call for the creation of a Thematic FundingWindow for Water Resources Management underthe Green Climate Fund. A Thematic FundingWindow will provide Parties with a mechanism toscale up investments in water infrastructure,information and institutions and promote theintegration of water security and climateresilience in development processes;n Strengthen the focus on water in the workprogramme on loss and damage; n Incorporate water management as part of thesolution to REDD;n Issue a decision to avoid adverse impact on waterresources by mitigation measures andemployment of remedial measures.Adapting to climate change is mainly about betterwater management. Appropriate measures must buildon land and water management practices that fosterresilience to climate change, thereby enhancing watersecurity. Innovative technologies and integratedsolutions are needed at the appropriate scales, foradaptation as well as mitigation. nACKNOWLEDGEMENTThis article was prepared with the expertise of theGlobal Water Partnership, an international network of13 Regional and 80 Country Water Partnerships, andmore than 2,300 institutional partners in 158countries. The GWP network is committed to thesustainable development and management of waterresources at all levels.Global Water Partnership (GWP)Drottninggatan 33, SE-111 51 Stockholm, SWEDENTel: +46 (0) 8 522 126, www.gwp.orgABOUT THE AUTHORDr Ania Grobicki is the Executive Secretary of theGlobal Water Partnership. Dr Grobicki has spentmost of her working life on water-related issues,holding positions in the private sector as well as withNGOs and the U.N.. She has a PhD in Biotechnologyfrom Imperial College, London.WATER035