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world after Denmark. This has occurred in a countrywith one of the highest per capita levels of emissionsand where 80 per cent of electricity is still producedfrom coal.Sometimes Clean Revolution leadership comes fromunexpected places. The US Navy is a case in point.Driven by strategic concerns over security of oilsupplies and the impact of climate change as a'threat multiplier', the Navy has set itself a range ofclean energy targets. These include securing 40 percent of its energy demands from non-fossil fuelsources and reducing fuel use in its 50,000commercial vehicle fleet by 50 per cent by 2015.Due to its size and influence, the US Navy has thepotential to play a key role in the early adoption andscale up of emerging clean technologies. A recent announcement with the Departments ofEnergy and Agriculture to invest US$500 million intoscaling up the production of sustainable biofuels foraviation is an example of this. Clean revolutionleadership is also taking place in the private sector. Inthe information and communications technologyindustry, BT Group (formerly British Telecom) hasmade significant strides in reducing its ownemissions (down 59 per cent since 1997) cuttingoperating costs and increasing profit. The in-houseknowledge, expertise and technology developed toachieve these cuts have opened up a whole newbusiness opportunity for BT as a provider of smartenergy management services to other industries.Challenging the status quo is another distinctivefeature of Clean Revolution leaders. Few companiesdemonstrated this better than Better Place, which is turning the electric vehicle (EV) business model on its head. Better Place has developed a systemwhich allows for both slow, plug-in charging of itsEVs, as well as rapid recharge through completebattery swap at dedicated depots. In a sense, BetterPlace is doing for vehicles what telecommunicationsfirms do for mobile phones - develop the network,discount the hardware and charge for minutes, or inthis case, miles.Leadership is by no means limited to the developedworld either. As UNEP and Bloomberg New EnergyFinance reported earlier this year, the majority ofinvestment in renewable energy in 2010 took place indeveloping and emerging economies. Chinese solarmanufacturers have been beneficiaries of suchinvestment, establishing themselves as world leadersin solar photo-voltaic (PV) module production. InIndia, wind turbine manufacturer Suzlon haspioneered vertical integration in the sector and is nowthe fifth largest manufacturer in the world. Suzlon'ssuccess is an example of opportunity seized, fulfillinga desperate need within India for reliable electricityfrom businesses and then expanding globally on theback of its proven business model.All the above are examples of success stories drivenby leaders who have understood the opportunitypresented by the development and adoption of cleantechnologies and low-carbon growth. The challenge for the world is replicating the successof these early adopters. Some of this will happenorganically, as other companies and governmentsrecognise the obvious benefits enjoyed by the earlyadopters. But such organic change is unlikely to besufficient in terms of either scale or speed to get towhere we need to be. This is why progress in Durbanremains important. While Durban will not deliver a new global deal, itmust demonstrate that countries remain committedto climate action both nationally and internationally.Progress on climate finance, adaptation, technologytransfer, and monitoring, reporting and verification(MRV) issues will be essential. Success in Durbanwill help speed the Clean Revolution by creating avirtuous cycle of positive feedback. The right signals here will give confidence to thosebusiness and political leaders already at theforefront of climate action. Their continuing bottom-up efforts will in turn help influence the behaviourand position of national governments, creating anegotiating environment which is finally focused onopportunity and not cost. nABOUT THE AUTHORMark Kenber is the CEO of The Climate Group. Hehas worked on climate change for fifteen years andis an expert on international climate policy. MrKenber has been instrumental in developing TheClimate Group's programmes in India and China,and directed ground-breaking internationalprojects with the finance, energy, technology andaviation sectors. Mark Kenber advised former UK Prime MinisterTony Blair in the joint policy initiative Breaking theClimate Deadlock (2008-2009), which produced aseries of high-level reports outlining the economicand technological rationale for a global climatedeal and its key components. He is also a carbonmarkets expert and co-founded the Verified CarbonStandard, now the most popular kitemark for theUS$400 million voluntary market. Previously, Mr Kenber was Senior Policy Officer forWWF's International Climate Change Programme,where he led the creation of the CDM GoldStandard. He participated in the European ClimateChange Programme working group responsible forthe design of the EU ETS, has served as Director ofPlanning at Fundacion Natura, and as climatechange advisor to the Ecuadorian government.060INNOVATION TECHNOLOGYAbove: The ScottishGovernment iscommitted to producing100 per cent ofelectricity consumed inScotland from renewablesources by 2020

INNOVATION TECHNOLOGY061Photo: © European Union, 2011