n what represents a major achievement inthe fight against global warming andclimate change, the first ever mandatoryglobal greenhouse gas (GHG) reductionregime for an international industry sector has beenadopted, this year, by the International MaritimeOrganization. Mandatory measures to reduce emissions of GHGsfrom international shipping were adopted by Parties toAnnex VI of the MARPOL Convention, during the 62ndsession of IMO's Marine Environment ProtectionCommittee (MEPC) in July 2011. The MARPOL Convention is the primary internationalinstrument regulating international shipping from anenvironmental perspective. These new regulationsapply to all ships of 400 gross tonnage and above andare expected to enter into force on 1 January 2013.Itis estimated that they could help ship operators saveIMOACHIEVESGHG EMISSIONS BREAKTHROUGH096LOGISTICSEFTHIMIOS E. MITROPOULOS, SECRETARY-GENERAL, THE INTERNATIONALMARITIME ORGANIZATION (IMO)IPhoto: Copyright IMO
LOGISTICS097Photo: IMO has beendeveloping technical andoperational measures toreduce greenhouse gasemissions from shipsbetween US$34 to US$68 billion in fuel costs, as wellas reduce CO2 emissions from international maritimetransport by up to 200 million tonnes, by 2020.Shipping is already the most energy efficient way totransport goods and raw materials around the worldand, as such, is only a modest contributor to global(GHG) emissions. In the 2009 IMO Study on GHGEmissions from Ships, international shipping wasestimated to have emitted 870 million tonnes, orabout 2.7 per cent of the global emissions of CO2 in2007, despite being responsible for carrying morethan 90 per cent of world trade by tonne-mile. Nevertheless, through IMO, Governments have beenengaged for some considerable time in a processaimed at reducing still further the release of harmfulatmospheric emissions from ships. Due to the globalcharacter of shipping, an effective control regimerequires global regulation that applies universally to allships and thereby maintains a level playing-field for allships, irrespective of the country in which the ship isregistered (flag State) or the nationality of the vessel'sownership. This has now been achieved, through theamendments to MARPOL Annex VI.The amendments to MARPOL Annex VI add a newChapter 4 to the Annex, entitled Regulations on energyefficiency for ships to make mandatory the EnergyEfficiency Design Index (EEDI), for new ships, and theShip Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP) forall ships. Other amendments to Annex VI add newdefinitions and the requirements for survey andcertification, including the format for the InternationalEnergy Efficiency Certificate.TECHNICAL AND OPERATIONALMEASURESThe EEDI is a technical measure, which requires allnew ships above 400 gross tonnage to meet aminimum energy efficiency level per capacity mile (i.e.