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" "PRE-MEXICO REVIEW113A MODEST ACCORD THAT IS FULLY IMPLEMENTEDMAY BE BETTERTHAN AN AMBITIOUS ONETHAT FALLS SERIOUSLY SHORTOF ITS TARGETSrenewable and clean energy, including nuclear energy. Within the ambit of our National Action Plan onClimate Change, India has already unveiled one of theworld's most ambitious plans for promoting solarenergy, targeting an installed capacity of 20,000 MWby the year 2022. We will soon launch an ambitious National Mission onEnhanced Energy Efficiency that will put in place aninnovative policy and regulatory regime to unlock themarket for energy efficiency, estimated at over US$15billion. It is expected that the initiative will lead toavoidance of capacity addition of nearly 20,000 MWand reduced carbon dioxide emissions of almost 99million tonnes. India has around 22 per cent of its land area underforests. This is significant, given India's growingpopulation and high population density and thissequesters around 10 per cent of our annualgreenhouse gas emissions. Our objective over the nextdecade will be to increase not just the quantity but thequality of our forest cover, since about 40 per cent of itis degraded forest with little tree canopy and cover.This will enable us to at least maintain this level ofcarbon sequestration even as we maintain an 8-9 percent annual rate of real GDP growth. It is clear the roots of the problem we face today are inthe current patterns of global production andconsumption, which are not sustainable. We are livingon an overdraft on Nature's resources and this isalready threatening the ecological balance, which isthe basis of our survival. It is my earnest hope that youwill approach your deliberations mindful of thechallenge we face, not as nations divided by frontiers,but as a world united as one common humankind. n

" "COPENHAGENBROUGHT MANY ISSUES TO THE ADVANCED STAGEOF NEGOTIATIONS.AT THE SAME TIME,THE PROCESS HAS BEEN OVERLY FOCUSEDON POLITICAL ISSUES n Cancun, Mexico, the internationalcommunity will have another opportunityto unify around a set of achievablecollective actions that could boost greengrowth and climate resilience. The expectations and objectives for Mexico need to berealistic and take account of current political realities.This needs to focus on three key areas:1.Clarity on the future of the Kyoto Protocol;2. Clear leadership by Annex I Parties;3. Putting in place a fully operational architecture thatmakes it possible for developing countries to act onclimate change.Under the Convention, it is important to come to a common understanding of what an outcome inMexico can consist of. Possibly, a set of decisions inMexico could put in place the implementationarchitecture that will trigger accelerated action without further delay. For example, Copenhagen made progress on institutional arrangements to further operationalise the Financial Mechanism.Agreement was almost reached on the establishmentof a Finance Board of the Financial Mechanism of the Convention. This could be made operational by a decision.The Board would operate under the guidance of, andbe directly accountable to the COP. It would also haveequitable and balanced representation of all Parties.Negotiations under the Bali Road Map need to beconcluded in Mexico. Where applicable, the points ofconvergence in the Copenhagen Accord could beutilised for this purpose.Points of convergence in the Copenhagen Accordinclude the following: There was convergence on the long-term goal oflimiting temperature increases to no more than 2°Cabove pre-industrial levels, subject to a review in 2015.But ways need to be found to make that a reality.Parties did not come to an agreement on how totranslate the long-term goal into the required emissionreductions, neither in global terms, nor for groups ofcountries. Firm commitments by developed countriesto continue taking the lead in emission reductions,including in the context of a 2°C Celsius limit, will beindispensable in the run-up to Mexico. The overalllevel of ambition needs to be raised and agreementreached on a second commitment period of the KyotoProtocol, coupled with appropriate arrangementsunder the Convention to capture commitments of non-Kyoto Parties.There seems to be convergence that the MRVframework for developed country targets would bebased on the existing reporting and accountingframework developed for the purposes of the KyotoProtocol. The MRV arrangements for developingcountries is a key policy issue on which theCopenhagen Accord could provide some guidance.Ways to reach the goal of mobilising US$100 billion by2020 pledged by developed countries remains a keyunresolved issue. Developed countries pledged up toUS$30 billion for the period 2010 to 2012, with a balanced allocation between adaptation andmitigation. It is essential that these funds start flowingimmediately. Given the amount of time needed tocreate and set up new funding channels, it will benecessary to channel short-term funds through existingRight: UNFCCC ExecutiveSecretary, Yvo de BoerTHE EXPECTATIONS AND OBJECTIVES FOR CANCUN114PRE-MEXICO REVIEWYVO DE BOER, EXECUTIVE SECRETARY, THE UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORKCONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE (UNFCCC)IPhoto: UN Photo/Devra Berkowitz