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AVIATION093

additional revenues through economic instrumentsunder the guise of climate change. Europe's zeal toinclude aviation into its emissions trading schemefrom 2012 is a perfect example of an economicmeasure that is not globally coordinated.The industry agrees that some form of economicmeasures will play a transition role in capping andeventually reducing aviation's emissions - untiltechnology can deliver longer-term solutions. But thesemust be globally harmonised. Overlapping andduplicative national and regional schemes risk carbonleakage and negating the emissions reduction effectsthey are designed to bring about.The inclusion of aviation in the European UnionEmission Trading Scheme in addition to the UK's AirPassenger Duty is a prime example. Airlines shouldpay their fair share - once. Not several times over.Aviation has every incentive to reduce fuel burn andthereby its emissions. The industry's fuel bill in 2009exceeded US$100 billion. That is a quarter of ouroperating costs. Anything that we can do to reduce fuelburn is a critical contributor to our economic survival.Governments must realise that these taxes and charges- in the absence of global coordination - simply becomepunitive blocks to the industry's efforts. Since 2004,IATA's efforts alone in assisting its members to improveefficiency have saved over 70 million tonnes of CO2. DELIVERING RESULTSAnd we are determined to deliver even more carbonsavings with better operations and new technology.Changes big and small are getting passengers to theirdestinations with greater eco-efficiency. IATA hasGreen Teams working directly with airlines to improvefuel management based on global best practices. Over the last year, IATA worked with over 100 airlinesto help them save eight million tonnes of CO2.Measures implemented include everything from betterflight planning to more frequent engine washing andlightening the weight of materials carried on board.Direct routes and reduced delays improve ourenvironmental performance. Over the course of 2009,IATA worked with industry partners, optimised 266 airroutes and the approach procedures at 253 airports.For example, approaching an airport with a continuousdescent, instead of the stepped approach that is mostcommon, can save up to 150 kg of CO2 per landing. And every minute of delays that we can avoid means that 100kg of CO2 is not emitted. In total, these measures saved four million tonnes of carbon emissions in 2009.094AVIATIONTHERE ARE SEVERAL POTENTIAL SOURCE CROPS FORSUSTAINABLE BIOFUELS. FOR AVIATION, JATROPHA,CAMELINA, HALOPHYTES AND ALGAE ARE THE MOST PROMISINGCO2 EMISSIONS WILL REDUCE SIGNIFICANTLY UNDER NEW MEASURESAPPROACHING AN AIRPORT WITH A CONTINUOUSDESCENT CAN SAVE UP TO 150KG OF CO2 PER LANDING