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additional revenues through economic instrumentsunder the guise of climate change. Europe's zeal toinclude aviation into its emissions trading schemefrom 2012 is a perfect example of an economicmeasure that is not globally coordinated.The industry agrees that some form of economicmeasures will play a transition role in capping andeventually reducing aviation's emissions - untiltechnology can deliver longer-term solutions. But thesemust be globally harmonised. Overlapping andduplicative national and regional schemes risk carbonleakage and negating the emissions reduction effectsthey are designed to bring about.The inclusion of aviation in the European UnionEmission Trading Scheme in addition to the UK's AirPassenger Duty is a prime example. Airlines shouldpay their fair share - once. Not several times over.Aviation has every incentive to reduce fuel burn andthereby its emissions. The industry's fuel bill in 2009exceeded US$100 billion. That is a quarter of ouroperating costs. Anything that we can do to reduce fuelburn is a critical contributor to our economic survival.Governments must realise that these taxes and charges- in the absence of global coordination - simply becomepunitive blocks to the industry's efforts. Since 2004,IATA's efforts alone in assisting its members to improveefficiency have saved over 70 million tonnes of CO2. DELIVERING RESULTSAnd we are determined to deliver even more carbonsavings with better operations and new technology.Changes big and small are getting passengers to theirdestinations with greater eco-efficiency. IATA hasGreen Teams working directly with airlines to improvefuel management based on global best practices. Over the last year, IATA worked with over 100 airlinesto help them save eight million tonnes of CO2.Measures implemented include everything from betterflight planning to more frequent engine washing andlightening the weight of materials carried on board.Direct routes and reduced delays improve ourenvironmental performance. Over the course of 2009,IATA worked with industry partners, optimised 266 airroutes and the approach procedures at 253 airports.For example, approaching an airport with a continuousdescent, instead of the stepped approach that is mostcommon, can save up to 150 kg of CO2 per landing. And every minute of delays that we can avoid means that 100kg of CO2 is not emitted. In total, these measures saved four million tonnes of carbon emissions in 2009.094AVIATIONTHERE ARE SEVERAL POTENTIAL SOURCE CROPS FORSUSTAINABLE BIOFUELS. FOR AVIATION, JATROPHA,CAMELINA, HALOPHYTES AND ALGAE ARE THE MOST PROMISINGCO2 EMISSIONS WILL REDUCE SIGNIFICANTLY UNDER NEW MEASURESAPPROACHING AN AIRPORT WITH A CONTINUOUSDESCENT CAN SAVE UP TO 150KG OF CO2 PER LANDING

the responsibility of governments to create the legal and fiscal frameworks to encourage their rapiddevelopment, commercialisation and deployment.WORKING TOGETHERIn June 2007, I shocked many in our industry bypresenting a vision to achieve carbon-neutral growth onthe way to a carbon-free future. At that time, it was onlya vision. It only took 50 years to go from the WrightBrothers to transatlantic jet travel. There are noboundaries on what can be achieved in the future. I amconfident that by working together, we can build asustainable aviation future.The only pre-requisite is that we have a commonvision. Industry is already working with our sharedtargets and a clear strategy to get there. As we approach COP-16, the task is to gain the supportof governments so that we can achieve a globalframework that accommodates developed anddeveloping nations but provides a level competitiveoperating platform for airlines. The G-8 meeting is an important step on the way. Wecount on your continued support. nWe could do much more with better governmentcooperation. The inefficiency of Europe's air trafficmanagement has an environmental cost as well - 16million tonnes of unnecessary carbon emissionseach year. TECHNOLOGYTechnology is the biggest driver of improvedenvironmental performance. Each new generation of aircraft brings 20-30 per cent improvements in fuel efficiency. To meet our targets airlines will need to commitUS$1.3 trillion to purchasing 12,000 new aircraft by2020. This alone will bring passengers to theirdestination with 17 per cent fewer emissions. IATA haspublished a technology roadmap to guide the neededtechnology advances. But we are thinking even bigger - to change the fuelthat powers our aircraft. Sustainable, new generationbiofuels show tremendous promise. Over theirlifecycle, they have the potential to reduce our carbonfootprint by up to 80 per cent. Only a few years ago, sustainable biofuels for aviationwere a future dream. Today, five airlines have testedbiofuels. We have proven that they are safe. Some testresults even showed efficiency gains. We expectcertification by early 2011 at the latest.There are several potential source crops for sustainablebiofuels. For aviation, jatropha, camelina, halophytesand algae are the most promising. All can produce fuelthat can be blended with today's jet fuel with nomodification to airframes or engines. Their ability togrow in almost any kind of climate condition meansthat global availability is not an issue.The benefits of sustainable biofuels extend wellbeyond the aviation industry. Production in developingcountries presents an economic opportunity to liftmillions out of poverty. And the variety of sources for biofuels could not onlyend our dependence on the few oil producing countriesfor energy, it will ensure a robust competitive marketsupported by local production.Cost is still an issue. Progress over the last years ofdevelopment has seen costs drop significantly. And ascommercial production scales up, we can expectdramatic reductions in unit cost.Governments - particularly the leading economies ofthe G8 - should be embracing sustainable aviationbiofuels much more proactively. To date, we have seenlittle activity outside of some small programmes in the US. We are not asking for handouts. But it is AVIATION095BIOGRAPHYGiovanni Bisignani joined the International AirTransport Association as Director General & CEO inJune 2002. Since that time Mr Bisignani hascompletely re-shaped and re-focused theorganisation to better serve its global membership of230 airlines, with a mission to represent and leadthe air transport industry.While securely managing IATA's US$315 billionsettlement systems, Mr Bisignani has driven anagenda of change focused on the air transportindustry's top priorities. The ground-breaking IATAOperational Safety Audit is the first global standard forairline safety management. By making it a conditionfor IATA membership from 2009, IATA membershipnow comes with an added mark of quality.Most recently Mr Bisignani placed IATA in aleadership position in the debate on climate changeand aviation. While air transport's contribution toclimate change is limited to 2 per cent of globalcarbon emissions - Mr Bisignani has united theindustry in a drive to achieve carbon neutral growthand eventually zero-carbon emission technology.Concurrent with his responsibilities at IATA, MrBisignani is a Board member of NATS HoldingsLimited, the air traffic services provider of the UnitedKingdom.Above: GiovanniBisignani, at the forefrontof the aviation industry'sefforts to achieve anumber of environmentaltargets