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and operations, and alternative fuels to take full effect.During this interim period, business aviation operatorsare therefore committed to offsetting their emissionsthrough market-based economic measures, such as theEU Emission Trading Scheme (EU-ETS).EU-ETS - GETTING IT RIGHTAccording to Eurocontrol, business aviation comprisesabout 7 per cent of flights, but emits less than 1 percent of European aviation emissions because of ouryoung aircraft fleet and because we fly only to task. So,the utilisation of business aircraft is low compared withthe airlines and the fuel consumption per aircraft houris similarly small. All this means that our sector willcontribute a minuscule amount to ETS income. With that in mind, the European Business AviationAssociation has been working with EU authorities toimplement EU-ETS procedures that are fair,transparent and cost-effective. Specifically, we haverecommended these improvements:Raising the simplified Monitoring, Reporting andVerification (MRV) procedure's threshold for smallemitters from 10,000 tonnes to 500,000 tonnes;Accepting Eurocontrol's ETS Support Facilitycalculations without additional verification foroperators who emit less than 500,000 tonnes andagree to use the ETS Support Facility;Improving access to emissions credit auctions forsmall emitters; andStandardising the de minimis threshold of 10,000tonnes for inclusion in EU ETS across all sectors.Most business aircraft operators are small to midsizebusinesses - 70 per cent of flights in Europe are byoperators using just one aircraft. These companies willhave to purchase offsets for almost all their emissionsdue to the tonne-kilometre (TK) principle. It istherefore essential that a simplified procedure isavailable to ease the administrative burden.In addition, equitable access to CO2 permit auctionswill also be critical. Unlike the airlines, businessaircraft operators, because of the payload to overallweight ratio limitations inherent in small aircraft, willtypically not qualify for more than 7-12 per cent oftheir allocation free of charge. Consequently, they willbe forced from the initial introduction of the scheme in2012 to buy the vast majority of their permits either onthe open market or at auction. EBAA believes EU Member States should not rely on the private sector to make small quantities ofpermits available at fair prices because of the muchsmaller commercial return they can expect to makeBIOGRAPHYBrian Humphries joined Shell Aircraft in late 1989 asan aviation adviser, having served in the Royal AirForce in ranks up to Air Commodore in a variety ofappointments with both flying and engineeringresponsibilities.After becoming Managing Director of Shell AircraftLimited in 1994, his duties were expanded in 2000when he also became the CEO of Shell AircraftInternational, accountable for all Shell Aircraft'soperations worldwide, amounting to more than100,000 flying hours per year.He retired in April 2005 and is now President andCEO of the European Business Aviation Association,based in Brussels, where he had previously served asChairman from 1996 to 2004.Mr Humphries is also Chairman of the BritishHelicopter Advisory Board and has served a three-yearterm as Chairman of the Montreal-based InternationalBusiness Aviation Council (IBAC), representing theinterests of business aviation globally at ICAO.AVIATION099dealing with small operators on an individual basis.These small operators do not have the infrastructure toparticipate directly in the complex auctioning marketwithout the introduction of a number of mechanisms toallow them to participate in the process without facingdisproportionate costs. Our sector's willingness to comply with new European regulations andenvironmental responsibilities must not becompromised by difficult or unreasonably expensiveaccess to markets. The EBAA believes every measureshould be taken to prevent emissions trading fromsuccumbing to over complex bureaucracy that putsmore money in the pockets of consultants and verifiersthan that generated from offsetting our sector's verysmall carbon emissions.WE ALL HAVE A ROLE TO PLAYThe business aviation community is prepared to do itspart to alleviate its environmental impact. We will putforth a sustained effort to meet the targets we have set,and a strong partnership between industry andgovernment is also necessary to achieve these goals. Business aviation wants to be an integral part of acomprehensive, ambitious and fair worldwide action tomitigate emissions. With the ambitious environmentalprogramme adopted by our manufacturers andoperators, in combination with full compliance with the EU-ETS, business aviation's contribution to mitigating the production of CO2 is not onlysignificant, it is wholehearted. n

limate change is now firmly entrenched inthe global agenda. The United Nationshas been tasked with developing a globalresponse to the challenge of climatechange, coherent with the Millennium DevelopmentGoals. The tourism sector - which the World TourismOrganisation (UNWTO) represents - with its importanteconomic and social value, its role in sustainableTOURISM: RESPONDING TO CLIMATE CHANGE100TOURISMCDR TALEB RIFAI,SECRETARY-GENERAL, UNITED NATIONS WORLDTOURISM ORGANISATION (UNWTO)Photo: UNPhoto/Eskinder DebebeAbove: Sustainabletourism will help createemployment anderadicate povertydevelopment and its strong relationship with climate,can and should make a significant contribution inresponding to this global challenge.Tourism and climate change are closely interrelated.Tourism is one of the most highly climate-sensitiveeconomic sectors with changes in climate havingprofound consequences on tourism destinations as