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GLOBAL VOICES063

he WTO is an important actor in thearchitecture of multilateral economic co-operation and it recognises the objectives of sustainable developmentand protection of the environment as part of itsfundamental goals. Both are enshrined in theMarrakesh Agreement, establishing the WTO, and arebeing further promoted in the current negotiationsunder the Doha Development Round.Through further trade opening, these negotiations canassist in efforts to mitigate and adapt to climatechange, for example by promoting an efficientallocation of the world's resources - including naturalresources - raising standards of living (hence thedemand for better environmental quality) andimproving access to environmental goods and services.In the context of the Doha Round, ministers called fornegotiations on "the reduction, or as appropriate,elimination of tariff and non-tariff barriers toenvironmental goods and services". Thesenegotiations, once completed, will result in fewer andlower barriers to trade in environmental goods andservices, including goods that can contribute toclimate change mitigation and adaptation. Asidentified by the Intergovernmental Panel on ClimateChange, a range of mitigation and adaptationtechnologies exist and may assist in the challenge of climate change. Many of these technologies involve products which WTO Members are consideringin the environmental goods negotiations. To date, the crux of the negotiations has been the identificationof environmental goods of interest. Several Membershave submitted lists of environmental goods, many of which contain climate-friendly goods andtechnologies. Examples of goods currently on thenegotiating table include those related to renewableenergy production, such as wind and hydraulicturbines, solar water heaters and geothermal heatpump systems; energy efficient goods such as energy efficient appliances and LED lamps; and other climate-friendly technologies, such as solar stoves, fuel cells, and carbon capture and storage technologies.There is a twofold rationale for reducing tariffs andother trade barriers regarding climate-friendly goodsand technologies. First, reducing or eliminating tradebarriers for these types of products should reduce theirprice and therefore facilitate their deployment at thelowest possible cost. The more accessible and cost-effective technologies are, the easier it is for countriesto adopt them. Secondly, opening trade in climate-friendly goods has the potential to create incentives forproducers, provide them with the domestic expertise toexpand the production and export of these goods, andexpand the size of markets, leading to profits fromeconomies of scale. Trade opening can also contributeto increasing local capabilities for innovation andadaptation of domestic technologies. Some WTO Members have put forth proposalsspecifically related to climate change. A submission by the European Union and the United States in December 2007 proposed to give priority in the WTO negotiations to climate-friendly goods and to services linked to addressing climate change,while a submission by Argentina in November 2009 proposed to liberalise environmental goodsrequired in the implementation of the CleanDevelopment Mechanism. The negotiations on environmental services alsoprovide opportunities to undertake new obligations andconsolidate market opening on a range of activitiesTRADE OPENING CAN HELPMITIGATE CLIMATE CHANGE064GLOBAL VOICESTPASCAL LAMY, DIRECTOR-GENERAL WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION (WTO)" "MORE OPENSERVICES TRADEFACILITATES THEDEVELOPMENTAND SPREADINGOF GREEN PRODUCTS ANDTECHNOLOGIES,WHICH, IN TURN,HELP TO PROTECT THE ENVIRONMENT AND PROMOTE ENERGY EFFICIENCY