Below:Pascal lamywhich are of direct interest for mitigating globalwarming and improving environmental protection moregenerally. Services at stake in these negotiationsinclude so-called environmental services, such assewage services, waste management services andsanitation, cleaning of exhaust gases, as well as natureand landscape protection services, the latter two beingdirectly relevant to climate change mitigation policies. Other relevant services with significant environmentalend-uses include consulting, architecture,engineering, research and development, technicaltesting and analysis (e.g. of air, water or fuels),maintenance and repair of equipment, andconstruction services, amongst others. In recent years, environmental services have expanded as a consequence of growing consumer demand forcleaner products and increasingly stringentenvironmental regulations. Many of these services are supplied on a business-GLOBAL VOICES065to-business basis and offer niche markets for small and medium-sized enterprises. While developed countries have been traditionally the main consumers and producers of environmentalservices, developing country markets are currentlyexperiencing significant growth.More open services trade facilitates the developmentand spreading of green products and technologies,which, in turn, help to protect the environment and promote energy efficiency. By ensuring someminimum legal guarantees regarding, inter alia, theestablishment of foreign service suppliers, the cross-border supply of services or the movement of physicalpersons supplying these services, commitments underthe WTO General Agreement on Trade in Services cancontribute to promoting investment in climate-friendlytechnologies and making it easier to transfer up-to-date expertise and know-how.The Doha Development Round negotiations canprovide an unprecedented opportunity for themultilateral trading system to contribute to themitigation and adaptation of climate change. Furthertrade opening will facilitate access to key mitigationand adaptation goods and services, will promote anefficient allocation of the world's resources, andthrough income growth will increase demand for betterenvironmental quality.Climate change is a challenge that transcends bordersand requires solutions not only at national levels butalso globally. While climate change negotiators areworking towards a post-2012 Agreement, the broaderinternational community, including the WTO, mustprepare effectively to contribute in a timely fashion toglobal mitigation efforts. nABOUT THE AUTHORPascal Lamy is the Director-General of the WorldTrade Organization. He began his career in the Frenchpublic service at the Inspection Générale desfinances and at the Treasury. He then became anadvisor to the Finance Minister Jacques Delors, andsubsequently to Prime Minister Pierre Mauroy. From1985 to 1994, Pascal Lamy was Chief of Staff for thePresident of the European Commission, JacquesDelors, and his representative as Sherpa in the G7.He joined Crédit Lyonnais in November 1994 as amember of the new management team that was putin place at that time. After the privatisation of CréditLyonnais, in July 1999, Mr Lamy was appointedCommissioner for Trade at the European Commissionunder Romano Prodi. In May 2005 he was chosen asthe next Director-General of the WTO and took officeon 1 September 2005 for a four-year term. On 30April 2009, Mr Lamy was re-elected unanimously bythe WTO general council for a second term of fouryears, beginning 1 September 2009.
s the world continues to recover from thefinancial and economic crisis, leaders areset to discuss other pressing challenges,says Robert B. Zoellick, President of theWorld Bank Group, at the 2011 spring meetings for theInternational Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank.We may be coming out of one crisis - the financial andeconomic crisis - but we are facing new risks andwrenching challenges: high and volatile food prices,high fuel prices with knock-on effects for food, politicalupheaval in the Middle East and North Africa, turmoilin Cote d'Ivoire, repeated natural disasters, risinginflation in emerging markets with some risks ofoverheating, sovereign debt issues in Europe.With food prices, we are at a real tipping point. Foodprices are 36 per cent above the levels of a year ago andremain close to the 2008 peak. Already 44 millionpeople have fallen into poverty since June of last year.If the Food Price Index rises by just another 10 percent, we estimate another 10 million people will fallinto extreme poverty -that is where people live on lessthan US$1.25 a day. And a 30 per cent increase wouldadd 34 million more people to the world's poor, whonumber 1.2 billion. We can do something about this.Some have asked; what can the G20 do? The G20 canplay a leading role. I believe multilateralism must befocused on doing real things in the short term whilebuilding toward mid- and longer-term actions. So I ampleased that France has made a top priority for itsPresidency of the G20 the topic of food. We areworking closely with the G20, and I believe we cantake a number of important steps that will help in twokey areas: food price volatility and food security. We aregoing to be using these meetings with the G187 tohelp prepare the way.First, we are working on a new code of conduct forcountries with regard to export bans. At a minimum,these should not apply to humanitarian suppliers suchas the World Food Programme. Second, we believe thathaving better information on food stocks' quality andquantity would help. Third, supporting the pre-positioning of small humanitarian food stocks inplaces like the Horn of Africa, operated by the WorldFood Programme. Fourth, helping countries to manageagricultural risks better. And fifth, the World Bank and the regional development banks can helpcountries with quick support for the most vulnerablethrough effective, targeted nutrition and safety netprogrammes rather than mistaken price controls orbroad-based increases in wages.More can be done on the production side, too. The WorldBank is now investing about US$7 billion a year inimproving agricultural production, from seeds toirrigation to storage. And we are investing all across thevalue chain. One area of focus is agricultural research -helping to develop better seeds. We are discussing with France and the G20 the possibility of perhapsintersecting that with some of the anxieties about climatechange and reviewing some of the research priorities aswe boost support for the 15 key research centres inagricultural research around the globe.I think these goalsare achievable in coming months and I am looking forresults at the meeting of G20 agriculture ministers inFrance in June. I look forward to continuing to work withthe French and others to make this happen. nThese Remarks by The World Bank Group PresidentRobert B. Zoellick are excerpts from Mr Zoellick'saddress at the at the Opening Press Conference of theWorld Bank-IMF Spring Meetings in Washington DCon 14 April 2011. For more information visit:www.worldbank.org.GLOBAL RESPONSE TOGLOBAL CHALLENGES066MOBILISING FINANCEROBERT B. ZOELLICK, PRESIDENT, THE WORLD BANK GROUPA" "I BELIEVE MULTILATERALISMMUST BE FOCUSEDON DOING REALTHINGS IN THESHORT TERMWHILE BUILDINGTOWARD MID- AND LONGER-TERM ACTIONS