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NUCLEAR ENERGY079the knowledge base of our nuclear experts. At the same time we have an opportunity to benchmarkcompetences, technical understanding and processes. New safety requirements may encourage bettertechnological and design selection. Site selection andengineering design will obviously come under renewedscrutiny with a revised view of the effect of bothearthquake and now tsunami. In the nuclear sector, safety cannot be used to providea competitive advantage. The cost of all energy is set toincrease to accommodate the enhanced safetystandards rightly required by society. This will putconsiderable strain on the global economy and delaysin meeting demand have the potential to stifle growth. The new world governance on nuclear safety will haveto create the conditions of this new harmony ofapproach and shared practices. I believe this is possible: in aeronautics, the safety ofthe aircraft is no longer a competitive advantage wherelevels of safety could be compromised in the rush ofcompetition between aircraft manufacturers. Allairplanes currently in development around the worldrespect the same safety norms in their conception, andthe conditions of utilisation are strictly controlled bythe national authorities.With nuclear energy, any accident, no matter where inthe world, has the potential to affect the whole planet.It is vital for the security of everyone that safetyconditions are respected equally around the world. This new co-operation, and eventually new governanceon nuclear safety, is the way forward that will allow thenuclear world to move on from this current cataclysmand overcome the swift erosion of its acceptability. Thenuclear sector has to regain the confidence of thepublic in order to survive.The World Energy Council will use its uniquelyrepresentative and impartial position to support thecreation of this new global governance by fosteringdialogue, providing a neutral forum to shareexperiences and practices among its stakeholders. Ouranalysis of best practice and the development ofindustry leading scenarios can be utilised by allgovernments as we establish better ways to cooperate,build and give legitimacy to this new governance. nABOUT THE AUTHORPierre Gadonneix is Chairman of the World EnergyCouncil and Honorary Chairman of ELECTRICITE DEFRANCE (EDF).Mr Gadonneix was appointed WEC Chair in2007 and re-elected in September 2009 for a further three-year term (2010-2013)Indeed, global institutions like the InternationalAtomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and, at the operationallevel, the World Association of Nuclear Operators(WANO), are committed to improving safety worldwide.It is time to reinforce and enrich these existinginstitutions, while adapting them to the realities andnew challenges of our world. This implies a reviewedlegitimacy and power, revisited objectives, missionsand resources. This approach would engender systematic sharing ofexperience and would enable the bar to be set basedon the very best business practices. In this respect theneed to understand the Fukushima accidents andshare the experience will be of great help to all nuclearoperators and safety authorities around the world. We are at a key stage in the growth of nuclear energytechnology. As we develop the innovations andtechniques that will be used to guide the nextgenerations of reactors we will need to enhance

ngoing climate change is an ominousscenario. Yet industry has enoughrevolutionary technologies to slow thischange, believes Siemens, the globalmarket leader in environmental technology. Thecompany is also a strategic collaboration partner infuture sustainable urban development projects,including the climate-neutral Masdar City in Abu Dhabi.The world's population is growing - and it is growingmost rapidly in the metropolises. Today, over half ofhumanity already lives in cities. This figure is likely toreach 70 per cent by 2050, when the number of peopleliving in cities will equal today's entire world population. As the number of urban inhabitants increases, so do theproblems. Traffic threatens to collapse, clean drinkingwater is becoming scarcer, and the energy demandcontinues to grow. It is also essential to cut emissions.Cities are the main sources of CO2emissions. Theyaccount for 75 per cent of global energy consumptionand for 80 per cent of the greenhouse gas emissionsgenerated by human activity, primarily CO2. Thepolitical establishment has been addressing thisproblem for just under 20 years. The firstenvironmental summit, which took place in Rio deJaneiro in 1992, was followed by 15 climateconferences whose results have been regularly publiclycriticised for being insufficient. However, this criticismRight:Renewable energysources like wind powerand electric cars canbecome perfect partners- the renewables canguarantee thattransportation in thecities of the future will be environment-friendly,and the cars can stabilise the power grid by storing excess energy in their batteriesLeft: In China, the firsthigh-voltage directcurrent transmission linewith a world recordvoltage of 800,000 voltsdistributes electricalenergy with very highefficiency across 1,400kilometres. The core ofthe Siemens system arehuge transformers - eachas large as a house andweighing 350 tonnesTHE CITY OF THE FUTUREWILL BE GREEN080INNOVATION TECHNOLOGYOPETER LĂ–SCHER, PRESIDENT OF THE MANAGING BOARD AND CEO, SIEMENS AG