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cloud providers. If the EU's proposals for an ITindustry-wide agreement are successfullyimplemented, this could potentially accelerate cloudadoption throughout Europe. However, until serviceproviders are prepared to share their utilisation data, itremains unclear just how efficient cloud computingactually is, other than it appearing to be greener. Untilthen, it is essential that organisations work with atrusted adviser who has the expertise to recommendwhich cloud computing models represent the best fitfor their environmental and business strategies, bothfor today and for the future.CONCLUSIONThe economic uncertainty of recent times has causedturbulence for organisations of all sizes. It has alsopresented an opportunity for green IT to elevate itselfto the top of the business and political agenda.Emerging trends, such as cloud computing, offer theopportunity for reduced costs and potentiallyenhanced environmental benefits.Demands for measurable reductions to CO2outputhave also placed the responsibility squarely on theshoulders of the IT industry to ensure thatorganisations can accurately quantify the changes theyare making. Similarly, while both national and EUgovernments have introduced schemes to encourageorganisations to reduce their CO2emissions, simplylegislating to enforce change is not enough. While thecarrot and the stick of allowances and fines areeffective to a degree, Governments - and the ITcommunity itself - need to actively work together toensure that climate change remains a key priority. nABOUT THE AUTHORDean Dickinson is managing director of AdvancedBusiness Solutions (Public Sector & Enterprise).Advanced Business Solutions providesleading integrated business applications andservices that enable public, private and third sectororganisations to retain control, improve visibility andgain efficiencies whilst continually improvingcorporate performance. Mr Dickinson has been in the finance softwarebusiness since 1990. He was part of the seniormanagement team at QSP/Arelon prior to theacquisition by COA Solutions, at which time hebecame deputy managing director for the business asa whole. Since the acquisition of COA Solutions byAdvanced Computer Software Group plc in Feb2010, Mr Dickinson has become managing directorof Advanced Business Solutions. He is a specialist in consultancy and has a strong knowledge ofbusiness processes within a high volume/high value environment.INNOVATION TECHNOLOGY091" "EXTENDING A COMPANY'S REPORTING TO INCLUDE GREENACCOUNTING, SOTHAT USERS CANREPORT ON THEENVIRONMENTALBENEFITS ANDCOSTS OF THEIROPERATIONS, IS A KEY AREA OFFOCUS FOR SOFTWARE DEVELOPERSmay also provide significant environmental benefits.According to Gartner, the IT industry consumes at least two per cent of all global energy use. Given itseconomies of scale, higher hardware utilisation anddesigned-for-purpose energy-efficient datacentres,cloud computing is therefore perceived as being more carbon efficient in comparison to traditional IT infrastructures. Perception, however, is not always reality. Opinions aredivided on whether transferring an organisation'senergy consumption from an "in house" ITinfrastructure to a public cloud service necessarilyresults in carbon emission reduction. If the cloudprovider's public datacentre is in Germany and thecompany's own current datacentre is in France, thenthe carbon footprint of those services may actuallyincrease due to the contrasting difference in carbonemissions between those countries. This is becauseCO2emissions in France are much lower due to itshigher proportion of nuclear generation.The problem when claiming that cloud computing isgreen is that there is currently no uniform way tomeasure the environmental efficiency of hosted ITservices. This could change if recent calls by the EUfor an open and standardised approach to cloudcomputing technology are embraced by the major IT

limate change is a global issue and no-one doubts the need for governments andglobal players to take the lead in drivingchange. Indeed, their participation isessential if positive change is to happen. According to Lord Stern, a former World Bank and UKGovernment chief economic advisor, society currentlyneeds to reduce emissions to about 20 GtCO2e per year(about two tonnes per person) by 2050. Given that thecurrent underlying rate of decrease in carbon intensity,defined as tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent(tCO2e)/GDP, is one per cent per year and that theworld economy continues to grow by 3-4 per cent peryear, carbon emissions will continue to grow at 2-3 percent per year under a BAU scenario. Therefore, toreduce emissions by 20 GtCO2e per year, asrecommended by Lord Stern, a dramatic change isneeded in the production and consumption profile1.Big numbers indeed, which surely can only beinfluenced by world powers and big business? Yes,absolutely, but that said, businesses of all shapes andsizes and in every walk of business life need toconsider the changes they can make, however small,to make a difference. So while global businesses areinvesting billions of US dollars in R&D and significantinnovations that will change the way in which we allwork and live, what can be done on a day-to-day basisby small companies across the world? It is these smallincremental changes that will help make significantchange. Real change will only come about wheneveryone considers the impact of their purchasing orbusiness decisions on the environment. It isincumbent on businesses like Danwood, who areexperts in their field, to advise and provide informationto facilitate those decisions, backed up by solutionsthat really deliver.As the world struggles to recover from the slump inglobal economies, the impact has been felt bybusinesses across the board, and for many it is still adaily reality. Therefore, purchasing decisions based on environmental considerations for many is stillconsidered a luxury that they cannot afford, but this is aperception that has to be removed. Increasingly, thenumbers of business purchases that strive to save moneyand improve carbon emissions are now inextricablylinked and thankfully technology is increasingly able todeliver on both fronts, without compromise.HOW DO ORGANISATIONS MAKE CHANGE?For any organisation, the truism "you cannot managewhat you cannot measure" is paramount, asmeasurement has to be the starting point for anyexercise aimed at reducing fiscal and environmentalmeasures. One of the biggest challenges is to developRight:Andy BrownGREEN SOLUTIONS HAVE NEVER BEEN MORE BLACK AND WHITE092INNOVATION TECHNOLOGYCANDY BROWN, GROUP MARKETING DIRECTOR, THE DANWOOD GROUP