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Pictured above: The LEAF to HOME system developed by Nissan is coming soon. It can provide a power source for homes in times of power blackouts and can help shift towards a non-peak power /smart electricity use pattern that can be coordinated with solar power generation in the future. Pictured facing page: Carlos Ghosntransportation is mainstream. This is our ethical imperative - and a calculated business move based on consumer preferences and tougher environmental mandates. By 2020, the EU wants CO2 emissions cut by 20 per cent compared to 1990 levels. By 2020, the US wants CO2 emissions cut by 17 per cent compared to 2005 levels. Given these trends, the status quo is no longer tenable: Zero-emission transportation will play an important part in a sustainable planet. The Renault-Nissan Alliance's vision is larger than zero-emission cars themselves. We are refining vehicle-to-grid technology, which allows an idle EV to return power to the grid at peak times and recharge with cheaper, off-peak electricity. We will help customers use their batteries to power their homes and, eventually, recycle their batteries. We are making even longer-range batteries more affordable. Furthermore thanks to a strategic cooperation with Daimler, we are bringing fuel-cell vehicles closer to reality every year.We work closely with governments, universities, utility companies and non-profit organisations. Many countries offer cash rebates for customers who buy zero-emission vehicles. Such subsidies boost consumer awareness and acceptance of clean cars. Other incentives include free parking, the use of bus lanes, free electricity for EVs and EV-only zones in cities. In the short term, such benefits make zero-emission vehicles competitive with conventional vehicles, whose costs have been amortised for a century. As manufacturers ramp up production of zero-emission vehicles, economies of scale will reduce the need for incentives. Electricity is abundant. Communities are adding charge points in office complexes, parking structures, residential areas and along highways. Forward-thinking governments, universities, multinational corporations and entrepreneurs are building fast charging networks or even battery switch systems, so drivers can "charge and go" in about the same time it takes to gas up. Utility companies are adding renewable resources to the grid, making the carbon footprint of electric cars lower and lower. We are optimistic about the future. Despite economic turbulence since 2008, governments have not slashed incentives or eliminated investments in critical infrastructure upgrades. Debt crises and unemployment will no doubt dominate discussions at the G8 summit in Chicago 124 transport and mobility

" the only way to significantly reduce CO2 emissions from the transportation sector is to build vehicles that do not consume any petroleum whatsoever "-- but it will also come around to the political and economic benefits of sustainability: creation of "green tech" jobs, a reduction of oil imports, strategic diversification of the energy supply, and the deployment of renewable energy.The International Energy Agency forecasts a scenario that sees as many as 2.5 million EVs on the world's roads by 2020 and 50 million by 2050. And for those of us working on solutions today, the zero-emission future has already begun. nABOUT THE AUTHORCarlos Ghosn is Chairman and CEO of the Renault-Nissan Alliance.He joined Nissan Motor as Chief Operating Officer in June 1999 and was named Chief Executive Officer in June 2001. President of Renault since May 2005, he remains President and CEO of Nissan. Carlos Ghosn is also a director of Alcoa and AVTOVAZ. He was appointed President and CEO of Renault in May 2009. A graduate of École Polytechnique and École des Mines in Paris, Carlos Ghosn had a successful career at Michelin, starting in 1978 as manager at the Le Puy plant in France and rising through the ranks to become Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Michelin North America in 1989.transport and mobility 125