page 1
page 2
page 3
page 4
page 5
page 6
page 7
page 8
page 9
page 10
page 11
page 12
page 13
page 14
page 15
page 16
page 17
page 18
page 19
page 20
page 21
page 22
page 23
page 24
page 25
page 26
page 27
page 28
page 29
page 30
page 31
page 32
page 33
page 34
page 35
page 36
page 37
page 38
page 39
page 40
page 41
page 42
page 43
page 44
page 45
page 46
page 47
page 48
page 49
page 50
page 51
page 52
page 53
page 54
page 55
page 56
page 57
page 58
page 59
page 60
page 61
page 62
page 63
page 64
page 65
page 66
page 67
page 68
page 69
page 70
page 71
page 72
page 73
page 74
page 75
page 76
page 77
page 78
page 79
page 80
page 81
page 82
page 83
page 84
page 85
page 86
page 87
page 88
page 89
page 90
page 91
page 92
page 93
page 94
page 95
page 96
page 97
page 98
page 99
page 100
page 101
page 102
page 103
page 104
page 105
page 106
page 107
page 108
page 109
page 110
page 111
page 112
page 113
page 114
page 115
page 116
page 117
page 118
page 119
page 120
page 121
page 122
page 123
page 124
page 125
page 126
page 127
page 128
page 129
page 130
page 131
page 132
page 133
page 134
page 135
page 136
page 137
page 138
page 139
page 140

" There is a crying need for political leaders who can see through special financial interests and understand the actions required to achieve a bright future for young people and the planet "are subsidised and fail to pay their costs to society, they will be burned. Even ostensibly successful caps simply reduce demand for the fuel, lowering its price so it is burned somewhere else. What is needed is an approach that results in economically efficient phase-out of fossil fuels, with replacement by energy efficiency and carbon-free energy sources such as renewable energy and nuclear power.Fee-and-dividend allows the market place to choose technologies. Subsidies should be eliminated for all energies. This approach spurs innovation and stimulates the economy as price signals encourage the public to adopt energy efficiency and clean energies. All materials and services naturally incorporate fossil fuel costs. For example, sustainable food products from nearby farms gain an advantage over highly fertilised products from halfway around the world.A carbon fee (tax) approach can be made global more readily than cap-and-trade. Say a substantial economic block, such as Europe and the US or Europe and China, agrees to a carbon tax. They would place border duties on products from nations without an equivalent carbon tax, based initially on standard, but appealable, estimates of fossil fuels used in making the product. Border duties create a strong incentive for exporting nations to impose their own carbon tax, so they can collect the funds rather than have them collected by the importing country.Advantages of being an early adopter of fee-and-dividend include improved economic efficiency of honest energy pricing and a head-start in development of energy-efficient and low-carbon products. Potential economic gains to middle and lower income citizens who minimise their carbon footprint will address concerns in many nations where citizens are becoming restive about growing wealth disparities. An added social benefit of fee-and-dividend is its impact on illegal immigration - by providing a strong economic incentive for immigrants to become legal.Barriers and International ImplementationSolution of fossil fuel addiction must overcome the barriers of the fossil fuel industry's influence on politicians and the media and the short-term view of politicians. There is a crying need for political leaders who can see through special financial interests and understand the actions required to achieve a bright future for young people and the planet. China, a nation with leaders rich in scientific training and a history of taking the long view, is a candidate for leadership. China has several hundred million people living within 25 meter elevation of sea level, and the country stands to suffer grievously from intensification of droughts, floods, and storms that will accompany continued global warming. China also recognises the merits of avoiding a fossil fuel addiction comparable to that of the United States. The United States might be spurred into action by the threat of impending second-class economic status. Fee-and-dividend was praised by the policy director of Republicans for Environmental Protection as: "Transparent. Market-based. Does not enlarge government. Leaves energy decisions to individual choices. Sounds like a conservative climate plan." However, the public's conscience must be stirred to the point of action to overcome powerful forces for fossil fuel business-as-usual.European citizens and political leaders are perhaps most aware of the climate crisis. Yet Europe continues to push the feckless cap-and-trade approach, perhaps because of bureaucratic inertia and vested interests. Thus the world continues to wait for real leadership. nAbout the AuthorDr James Hansen heads the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies and is Adjunct Professor at Columbia University's Earth Institute. Dr Hansen is best known for his testimony on climate change in the 1980s that helped raise broad awareness of global warming. He is a member of the United States National Academy of Sciences and has received numerous awards including the Sophie and Blue Planet Prizes. Dr Hansen is recognised for speaking truth to power and for outlining actions needed to protect the future of young people and all species on the planet.Pictured: Dr James E. HansenForeword 015

Lighting up the Road to a Healthy and Sustainable WorldHarry Verhaar, Head of Global Public & Government Affairs, Philips Lighting When commentators debate the topic of sustainable development, things are sometimes made unnecessarily complex. This can cloud public understanding and, to a degree, restrict engagement. We need to keep things simple and real: sustainable development is development that can be sustained. No more, and no less.This is something to bear in mind when contemplating the significant challenges the world is facing: population growth and population aging, rising healthcare costs, unprecedented urbanisation, the expanding middle class in emerging economies, and serious resource constraints. Addressing these challenges demands the pursuit and adoption of both social and ecological innovation as well as clean, smart, people-focused solutions. On the social innovation side, there is a pressing need to reform our healthcare systems. Demographic shifts (aging societies), the rise of chronic and lifestyle-related diseases, and scarcity of medical personnel are putting healthcare systems worldwide under pressure. Innovation throughout the care cycle contributes to healthcare systems that are accessible, affordable and more sustainable. On the ecological innovation side, it is necessary to address the resource constraints the world is facing. A shift from our current linear society, which is optimised toward lowest initial cost (progress measured by GDP), to a "circular society" is a key area of innovation. In a circular society, new business models are applied with innovative (re-)use of resources, creating a competitive economy centered on resource effectiveness.PHILIPS SOLUTIONSAs a leading innovator in the field of health and well-being, with a mission to improve the quality of life through meaningful innovations and the vision to strive for a healthier and more sustainable world, Philips provides solutions in a number of areas that are key to social and ecological innovation:n Energy: Lighting accounts for 19 per cent of the world's electricity consumption. Significant savings are possible - on average 40 per cent - by switching to energy-efficient lighting solutions. On a global level, these savings amount to ?128 billion in reduced electricity cost, 670 million tons of CO2, or the equivalent of 642 power plants (in itself representing a ? 1,300 billion saving in reduced need for power infrastructure - virtually making this an economic necessity in these times of national budget deficits). Philips is driving the lighting industry's transition toward energy-efficient lighting, particularly LED lighting, and we aim to improve the energy efficiency of all the products we bring to market by 50 per cent in the period from 2010 to 2015.n Materials: Philips is increasingly moving from linear to circular closed-loop business models, and we expect to double recycling rates and re-use of recycled materials by 2015.n Food: Philips provides meaningful solutions for healthy and nutritious food preparation and preservation, as well as developing horticultural lighting that serves to enhance global food productivity." In a circular society, new business models are applied with innovative (re-)use of resources"016 industry intro