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" Governments must show leadership, but so must leaders and all actors in the business sector and civil society "So, what can be achieved at Rio+20 to address these challenges? The following sections will address this question; first through the two themes of the Conference: (i) green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication, and (ii) the institutional framework for sustainable development; and secondly, by looking at the framework for action and means of implementation. Green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradicationMember states agree that a green economy is a means to the end of sustainable development, which is about intra- and inter-generational equity. Green economy focuses attention on our current economic model and asks how we can sustain economic dynamism while shifting onto a new path that is both socially and environmentally sustainable. New strategies and policies are necessary, and governments will need to share knowledge and experience. There are many examples of a green economy in practice, but they exist only on a smaller scale. How can good practices be brought to scale?Rio+20 could agree to launch a process, or platform, that would facilitate knowledge sharing. This agreement could provide for enhanced technology collaboration and transfer, as well as for mobilising finance to invest in green sectors and activities. As the concept of green economy is still new for many, countries will want assurances that its implementation is fully consistent with the Rio principles and supportive of sustainable development in all three dimensions. Institutional framework for sustainable developmentTo move towards inclusive green economies, national policies and institutions will need to be supported by strengthened international institutions for sustainable development. First, there is a broadly recognised need to strengthen the environmental pillar of sustainable development. For that, Member States agree that the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), created in 1972 as a result of the Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment, will need more predictable resources. How this strengthening is to be accomplished remains to be seen. Second, many Member States feel that a high-level body is needed to champion sustainable development and the integration of its three pillars. Many feel that the Commission on Sustainable Development, which has been serving that function since 1992, has proved inadequate to fulfil the champion role. Framework for actionRio+20 is not defining new principles. Rio+20 is meant to accelerate action and progress on implementing those principles. For that reason, Member States have agreed on the need for a Framework for Action.A number of sectoral and cross-sectoral priorities have been identified and included in the framework. Seven of these areas that have consistently been recognised as urgent: food security and sustainable agriculture, energy, water, sustainable cities, decent work and social inclusion, oceans, and natural disaster risk reduction and resilience. Important proposals have been made on other cross cutting issues, including: education, gender equality and sustainable consumption and production. Monitoring and measuring progress are vital ingredients of successful international action post-Rio+20. One important outcome of Rio+20 could be agreement to define a set of sustainable development goals (SDGs) that would be aspirational and universal in applicability. They would complement the Millennium Development Goals and build on their success. Continuing to focus on the social pillar, these goals would also encompass the other two pillars of sustainable development. We do not yet know whether Member States will define the goals, or a subset, but more likely the actual targets and indicators would be defined in a follow-up process coordinated with the post-2015 development agenda.Means of implementation Developing countries are concerned that, whatever elements are contained in an agreed framework, adequate provisions must be made to mobilise the means of implementing commitments - including in technology, finance and capacity building. ConclusionIn conclusion, Rio+20 is a once in a generation opportunity for Heads of State and Government to renew their commitment for sustainable development and to agree on decisive actions to address the huge common challenges facing humanity. It must not be missed. Governments must show leadership, but so must leaders and all actors in the business sector and civil society. It is only through broad participation at the Conference, and especially beyond, that we can hope to make sustainable development a reality. nSUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT - RIO+20 037

action and leadershipAchim Steiner, UN Under-Secretary General Executive Director, UN Environment Programme (UNEP) How to grow the global economy, generate decent jobs in sufficient numbers while keeping humanity's foot print within planetary boundaries is the challenge facing this generation of leaders.In 2012 both the G8 and the G20 come in advance of Rio+2 - a Summit two decades following the Earth Summit of 1992 which set the course for sustainable development including the establishment of global treaties on climate change, biodiversity and desertification. All these upcoming meetings and Summits are taking place in a world markedly different from that of the late 20th century - economically, geopolitically, environmentally and socially. Over the last 25 years, while the world economy has more than doubled, 60 per cent of the world's ecosystem services generated by forests to coral reefs are now degraded or used unsustainably.n Each year, 13 million hectares of the world's forests - the size of Greece - disappear. According to UNEP's Year Book 2012, 24 per cent of the global land area has already suffered declines in health and productivity over the past quarter century as a result of unsustainable land-use. Some kinds of conventional and intensive agriculture are triggering soil erosion rates some 100 times greater than the rates at which nature can form soil in the first place. n By 2030, without changes in the way land is managed, over 20 per cent of terrestrial habitats such as forests, peat lands and grasslands in developing countries alone could be converted to cropland-aggravating losses of vital ecosystem services and biodiversity Greenhouse gas emissions continue to climb, pushing the planet towards the CO2 threshold above which scientist fear some environmental changes could become irreversible - global warming could trigger increasing numbers of displaced people and make whole countries inhabitable, including the low lying island of the Maldives and Kiribati.Can Rio+20 deliver the kind of defining and decisive compass to meet these challenges while unleashing opportunities for seven billion people, heading to over nine billion by 2050? A Green Economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication is one of the key overarching themes of the June Summit. UNEP's Green Economy report suggests that investing two per cent of global GDP in 10 key sectors could, with the right enabling policies, kick start a transition to a low- carbon, resource efficient, employment generating economy. For example, investing about one and a quarter per cent of global GDP each year in energy efficiency and renewable energies could cut global primary energy demand by nine per cent in 2020 and close to 40 per cent by 2050, it says. Employment levels in the energy sector would be one-fifth higher than under a business as usual scenario, as renewable energies take close to 30 per cent of the share of primary global energy demand by mid century. Savings on capital and fuel costs in power generation would under a Green Economy scenario, be on average US$760 billion a year between 2010 and 2050. The report, Towards a Green Economy: Pathways to Sustainable Development and Poverty Eradication which has involved other UN agencies, experts and economists from across the globe, also highlights enormous opportunities for decoupling waste generation from GDP growth. 038 sustainable development - rio+20