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While on the surface this seems to indicate that the G8 goal is within reach, a more detailed examination reveals a mixed picture. The overall number of projects has changed little in the past three years. More projects have advanced through the project lifecycle, but the number of projects at the very early planning stage has decreased. There are significant challenges facing CCS project developers, and there continue to be high-profile project cancellations or delays. The most frequently cited reason for projects being cancelled or put on hold is that the project was deemed uneconomic in its current form and environment. A lack of government funding was a decisive factor for many project proponents in these situations, followed by uncertainty regarding public carbon abatement policies in the longer term. As Figure 2 illustrates, a large majority of the LSIPs are concentrated within a small number of developed economies. While this is perhaps not surprising for a technology in the early demonstration phase, the potential role of CCS in large-scale global emission reduction means that it is vital that the technology eventually be demonstrated in many different environments and circumstances. For that reason, it is important to continue widely sharing the lessons learnt from early demonstration projects, and to continue investing in capacity development in economies where CCS may have a large role to play in future years. Some large emitting countries do not have any LSIPs at present, and several such countries have none in prospect.An important development in potentially paving the way for CCS in developing countries is inclusion of CCS in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) at COP 17 in Durban last year. This Inclusion sets an important precedent Figure 2: Number of large-scale integrated projects by regionfor inclusion into other financing and support mechanisms. A further important point is that all of the most advanced LSIPs have links to the oil and gas sector. Six of the eight LSIPs in the operational stage capture CO2 from natural gas processing plants while two capture CO2 from the production of fertiliser or synfuels. CO2 captured from five of these projects, including the fertiliser and synfuel projects, is used in enhanced oil recovery (EOR), while that from the other three is injected into deep saline formations. Of the LSIPs under construction, there are five with direct links to the oil and gas sector. Very importantly, two power generation facilities including CCS are under construction - Mississippi Power's Kemper County in the US and SaskPower's Boundary Dam project in Canada. In both cases, the captured CO2 from these projects will be injected for EOR. EOR is one way in which captured CO2 can be used for direct benefit, and also to generate revenue that can be an important driver for the capture process. Continuing to investigate and exploit uses of captured CO2 is important for providing potential commercial incentives for early demonstration projects, to supplement essential government funding. Overall, progress is being made towards the broad-scale demonstration of CCS in advance of its eventual deployment. To keep this progress on track, CCS must remain on the agendas of high-level energy and climate change discussions.Continued political leadership is essential at both national and international levels to achieve the G8 goals. This commitment is still achievable, but heightened urgency on the part of all stakeholders is needed to realise the number of large-scale projects that constitute the critical first steps in the deployment of CCS. n For further information on the status of CCS please visit: www.globalccsinstitute.comAbout the AuthorAs CEO of the Global CCS Institute, Brad Page brings exten-sive knowledge and experience on Australian and international climate and energy issues. Prior to the Institute, Mr Page served as CEO of the Energy Supply Association of Australia (esaa), the country's peak representative organisation of the electricity and downstream gas industry. Before this, Mr Page enjoyed a long career in the Australian Public Service, departing at senior executive level.5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Africa Other Asia Middle East China Canada Australia and New Zealand Europe United States Number of projects 2012 (March)20102009"cCS is an essential component of the portfolio of technologies to reduce global emissions"clean coal technology 069

The Future We Want: Water for All, Climate Resilience and Green GrowthDr Ania Grobicki, Executive Secretary, Global Water Partnership (GWP)Credit: GWP070 water