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toolbox. The first ever environmental negotiation in the history of the multilateral trading system was launched 10 years ago. Some of it would contribute directly to sustainable growth. I am especially referring to the opening of trade to environmentally-friendly goods and services at the WTO. At the moment, on the negotiating table there are many climate adaptation and mitigation technologies, whose export in recent years has totalled US$165 billion. They include goods such as wind turbines, solar cooking appliances, and photovoltaic cells. These goods should cease to be penalised at national borders through tariffs. We must make clean technology, and especially climate-friendly technology, more affordable and accessible to all.But a negotiation was also launched at the WTO on the reduction or elimination of environmentally-harmful fisheries subsidies - yet another leg of sustainable growth. A negotiation aimed at a model of growth that would discourage the depletion of scarce environmental resources. The proponents of new rules on fisheries subsidies in the WTO argue that an estimated US$14-20 billion of annual subsidies are depleting the world's fish stock. They have artificially inflated the size of the global fishing fleet. The size of this fleet, combined with massive advances in fishing technology - in particular trawling - have caused alarm. Whereas in 1950, our fish catch amounted to 20 million tons, in recent years it has soared to over 80 million tons. But did our fish stock also grow? Sadly not. Instead, some of the world's oldest living fish species are on the verge of extinction. At Rio + 20 we must not ask whether we want green growth, but how to make that growth possible. The WTO, as the regulator of global trade can contribute to this: the already mandated environmental negotiations in the WTO should be brought to closure. Emphasis must also remain on concluding a global climate accord. We cannot risk a climate trade conflict. n"At the moment, on the negotiating table there are many climate adaptation and mitigation technologies, whose export in recent years has totalled US$165 billion"FINANCE AND INVESTMENT 085

Rio at the intersection of health and sustainabilityH uman beings are at the centre of concerns for sustainable development. They are entitled to a healthy and productive life in harmony with nature". Principle 1 of the 1992 Rio Declaration on Environment and DevelopmentoverviewTwenty years on, the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development represents an opportunity to set the world back onto a sustainable development path in which better and more equitable health outcomes play a key role.In these past two decades, the world has made significant economic and technological advances, as well as advancing towards attainment of a number of the Millennium Development Goals that address poverty and ill health. These positive trends, however, have been accompanied by economic disparities and inequalities, social inequity, persistent gender inequality, a growing deterioration of the environment, as well as recurrent economic, financial, energy and food crises. Rio+20 is a forum where sustainable development policies can be revitalized and strategies redefined, in the context of a green economy and poverty reduction. The themes are shaped around strategies in seven sectors and settings, including: jobs, energy, cities, food, water, oceans, disasters. But cross cutting to all of these areas is human health. Rio+20 offers an important opportunity to " Unhealthy living and work environments contribute to as much as one-quarter of deaths and illness globally "Dr Maria Neira, Director, Department of Public Health and Environment, World Health Organization (WHO)re-examine and reinforce the relationship between health and sustainable development in line with the original Rio Declaration, with a special focus on three key issues: Universal health coverage: a healthy population can more effectively work, earn and contribute to sustainable development; Health in a "green economy": sustainable development strategies need to ensure that urban and rural environments are healthy places to live and work, reducing environmental health risks and hazards, particularly in poor communities; Health relevant milestones and measures of progress: health is relatively easy to measure and health-relevant measures of future sustainable development progress. Historical review While health was one of the foundations of the first Rio Conference, and of its resulting Conventions, integration of health and environment policy in the intervening two decades has been weak. This has represented a missed opportunity to promote human health through more sustainable development choices, and to use health evidence as a compelling argument for a green economy. To take one example; although almost all of the least-developed countries cite health protection among their top concerns from climate change, fewer than one in four have an adequate health vulnerability and adaptation assessment. Less than 1 per cent of multilateral adaptation funding flows to health, meeting less 086 health