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30 billion with green products, solutions and services, while cutting customers' CO2 emissions by roughly 317 million tons. To better serve the booming urban and infrastructure markets, Siemens has bundled all its city-related activities in areas such as transportation systems, building technologies and smart grids in a new dedicated company unit, the Siemens Infrastructure & Cities Sector.Within cities, buildings are one of the largest sources of emissions, accounting for about 21 per cent of the world's total CO2 footprint and some 40 per cent of global energy consumption. Intelligent technologies that are already available today can greatly increase buildings' energy efficiency - as Siemens is demonstrating at its own locations. The company's new world headquarters in Munich, which will open their doors at the beginning of 2016, will be one of the most advanced and energy-efficient buildings in the world. Occupying an area of 45,000 square metres, the structure will be a virtually self-sufficient, zero-energy complex. V-shaped facades, special reflectors and interconnected interior courtyards will maximise the supply of daylight to the building's offices. Groundwater and rainwater will be used to cool the structure and help meet its water requirements. If additional energy is needed, only green electricity will be used. The aim is to retain LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) platinum certification.Taipei 101, Taiwan's tallest building, was honored with the award last year. With the help of Siemens' energy efficiency experts, the skyscraper, which had already achieved a high level of environmental compatibility, was awarded platinum certification - the highest LEED rating. Annual energy costs at Taipei 101 have been reduced by US$700,000 - further proof that existing buildings also harbour significant potential savings.If energy-saving building renovation is not to be restricted to prosperous cities, cooperation with private-sector investors is a must. And it is here that Siemens is helping out with an energy-saving performance contracting model that enables customers to finance required renovations through guaranteed reductions in energy and operating costs. No upfront payments are required. To date, Siemens has optimised more than 4,500 buildings worldwide and reduced energy costs by ?1 billion and CO2 emissions by 9.7 million tons. But our climate is not only being burdened by energy consumption in inefficient buildings. Increasing urban traffic volumes are also making ? smart cities 093

a significant contribution to global warming. Road traffic accounts for roughly 20 per cent of global greenhouse gas emissions. According to a Shell study, the number of private automobiles on the world's streets and highways will double by 2030 to about 1.4 billion. Electric cars are a good way to reduce emissions in cities. Electric motors use energy about three times more efficiently than combustion engines. They can also serve as mobile energy storage devices. If wind and solar power systems generate too much energy when demand is low, electric cars can temporarily store the surplus in their batteries and feed it back into the power grid when needed. As a result, electric cars will play a key role in the creation of a green future in which electricity will be generated from renewable sources and transported to consumers through intelligent distribution networks.Mass transit systems can also make a vital contribution to climate protection and to increasing the quality of urban life. In the emerging countries, it is often necessary to build new infrastructures from scratch. In the industrial countries, on the other hand, the main task is to upgrade existing networks. In Oslo, for example, Siemens has supplied ecofriendly trains that are up to 95 per cent recyclable. In addition, as much as 46 per cent of the energy expended in operating the Oslo trains is recovered by feeding braking energy back into the power system.To optimise transportation networks over the long term, Siemens offers Complete Mobility - a comprehensive solution that integrates all components of a transportation system. In the future, travelers will not only access subway, bus, train and plane timetables and up-to-the-minute traffic information via their smart phones in real time, they will also check possible routes and combinations and reserve tickets online. The advantages: fewer traffic jams and fewer reservation delays. A first prototype of Siemens' Complete Mobility solution was presented at the sixth German National IT Summit in Munich at the end of 2011.Complete solutions will also be a decisive factor in achieving sustainability in the area of power generation. Germany, for example, has launched a new energy policy that will demonstrate, among other things, that energy transformation is possible worldwide. The German government, which has decided to withdraw from nuclear power by 2022, intends to increase the share of renewable energies like wind and solar power in the country's energy mix to 80 per cent and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in Germany by 80 per cent by 2050. The implementation of the new energy policy is a complex puzzle whose solution will require major efforts from all participants. Most of the necessary technologies are already available. Some are still being developed. But it is the framework conditions that will be decisive for success. Here, governments will have to actively create appropriate incentives and, where necessary, accelerate approval processes - for the construction of power superhighways, for instance - without neglecting popular participation. In the future, power generation will increasingly rely on renewable energies like wind power, solar power, hydropower, biomass and geothermal power. And the change is already underway. For example, the world's largest offshore wind farm is now being built at the mouth of the River Thames. The London Array is scheduled to start supplying climate-friendly electricity to some 750,000 British households in 2013. The transmission of green energies over vast distances without significant loss is another challenge. A power superhighway from Siemens shows how it can be mastered: a high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) distribution system installed by the company is currently linking hydropower plants in China's Yunnan Province with the million-strong cities of its highly industrialised Guangdong region. Ninety-five percent of the electricity transported over the 1,400-kilometre line reaches its destination - a level of efficiency inconceivable with alternating-current systems. HVDC technologies have a wide range of applications. For instance, they can also be used to connect offshore wind farms to onshore grids and to transmit electricity to consumption centers from solar power plants located in the desert.If energy systems are to become sustainable, integrated measures will have to be implemented in ten main areas. First, electricity will have to be used as efficiently as possible - in buildings, industry, households and transportation networks. Next, renewable energies will have to be developed to the point that they generate power at competitive prices and can be transmitted to consumers over long-distance power lines. Since coal-fired power plants will continue to supply base-load electricity for many years to come, their functioning must be made as efficient as possible. The greenhouse gases that the plants emit will have to be sequestered or reused in industry. Not only are combined cycle power plants, which utilise gas-fired as well as steam turbines, the world's most efficient producers of electricity; they can also be ramped up very quickly to fill the breach when power generation from wind and solar sources is insufficient to meet demand. High-performance energy storage devices like batteries and Pictured on previous page: CO2-free energy production with wind energy is an option around the globe: New Zealand's West Wind Farm produces electricity for the same price as coal-fired generation, mainly thanks to strong winds094 smart cities