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HARLEY GALLERYHouse of Commons and Secretary ofState to Queen Anne. While the two Dutchfountains aren't listed, it is likely they camewith Harley's other royal perquisite plate. Each case in the Treasury takes adifferent theme: dinner and dessert inthe 18th century; entertaining andshopping in Regency London; provisionsfrom the estate; and how the servantsate and drank. Dinner mattered: a tabledressed with silver and porcelain, withdishes cooked by a French chef and adessert made by an Italian confectionerwas essential for the status of a greatWhig noble family. Even when cash wasshort during the Napoleonic Wars, theDuke of Portland maintained the oldtradition of hospitality, keeping openhouse or 'public days' when as many as60 local gentry sat down to dinner. In fact, the third Duke was rarely atWelbeck, failing even to attend the 21stparty of his son Lord William in August1795. As Home Secretary and later PrimeMinister during Britain's long wars againstRevolutionary France and Napoleon, hehad good reasons for staying in London.This was a time of hardship, when a loafof wheat bread quadrupled in price, withfood riots and suffering among the poor,so that the Duke made it governmentpolicy for newspapers to publish CountRumford's recipes for cooking potatoesas an alternative food source.Top: The 1915wedding of LordTitchfield, whobecame theseventh DukeAbove: The sixthDuke with hiswife at Welbeckin 1893 Left:Porcelainand silver gilt forthe dessertThrough his many food bills and listsof the valuable old Tokay and matureMadeira stored in the cellars atBurlington House in 1781, we canglimpse the third Duke's discerning tastein food and wine. Although the Dukewas unable to afford to buy a Londonhouse, he lived in some splendour atBurlington House on Piccadilly, whichbelonged to his brother-in-law, the Dukeof Devonshire. Entertaining was a socialduty, requiring lavish and fashionabletableware as well as food and drink.The country house, a world of its own,was the centre of a productive estate.Home-brewed beer, bread from theWelbeck bakehouse, freshwater fish fromthe ponds, and wildfowl and venisonwere assets to be enjoyed. Freshproduce, plus hothouse fruit, jams andjellies were sent to London by the weeklycarrier or given to friends in the region.On one occasion, ice from the icehousewas sent 20 miles to Lord Fitzwilliamwhen he was entertaining the Prince ofWales at Wentworth Woodhouse.Rank and a strict hierarchy applied tothe servants' food and drink. In theStewards Room, upper servants atewith silver flatware, drank from silvertankards and enjoyed a choice ofdishes, whereas the lower servants hadsimpler food and drank beer rather thanport. An unusual Welbeck householdwww.nadfas.org.ukNADFAS REVIEW / SPRING 2010 object is a Victorian beer distributor fromthe Servants Hall. The maids also hadthe privilege of drinking tea, served froma silver pot in the Housekeeper's Room.The Harley Gallery is known for itscreative patronage of artists. Typical ofits imaginative interpretation, and thanksto an Arts Council Museumaker grant,the installation in the summer by theartist Jane Wildgoose will play with thisfamily story of dining and drinking. Dining with a Dukeruns for two yearsfrom April. Call01909 501700 or visitwww.harleygallery.co.ukfor details

RENAISSANCE DRAWINGSLeft:Virgin andChild, AndreaMantegna(c1480-90). Theoriginal sketch,covered herewith ink, featureda very differentdesign for the throne Main picture:Head of aWoman,Leonardo daVinci (c1468-75) Drawing attentionThe exhibition of 100 Italian 15th-century drawings thatopens at the British Museum on 22 April will bringtogether for the first time the two greatest graphicholdings in the field: the Museum's Prints and DrawingsDepartment and the Gabinetto Disegni e Stampe degli Uffizi,Florence. The greatest treasures of both collections are ondisplay because of the reciprocal nature of the arrangement,with the exhibition going on to Florence after it closes inLondon on 25 July. This unique collaboration means that theexhibition will be able to recount the development of Italiandrawing between 1400 and around 1510 in unparalleleddepth. The list of artists whose work is represented is trulystellar: including Fra Angelico, Jacopo and Gentile Bellini,Botticelli, Carpaccio, Filippo and Filippino Lippi, Lorenzo di Credi,Lorenzo Monaco, Mantegna, Perugino, Pisanello, Antonio andPiero Pollaiuolo, and Verrocchio. It closes with youthfulexamples by Michelangelo, Raphael and Titian, whose careerswould define the successive period in Italian art.For Michelangelo and Raphael, drawing was absolutelyfundamental to how they worked (the same is also probablytrue of Titian but his surviving graphic legacy is tiny incomparison with theirs). The exhibition traces the evolution ofthe working procedures on paper that both artists learnt fromtheir respective masters. This began with exploratorycompositional studies followed by detailed drawings of figuresand important details of the design, perhaps concluding with asame-size drawing of the design, known as a cartoon (fromthe Italian for a large sheet of paper -'cartone'). The keystimulus for drawing was the widening availability of paper,especially after the introduction of the printing press to Italyfrom Germany in the 1460s. Although paper remained aRenaissance Italy was quite simply awash with talent, resulting in some of history's best-known artworks.Hugo Chapmanexplains how a stellar new exhibition at the British Museumexamines the ways in whichdrawings assisted the artistic process, and how many artists used these sketches to experiment with afreedom that was not always reflected in their finished works26NADFAS REVIEW / SPRING 2010www.nadfas.org.ukImages: © British Museum; Uffizi, Gabinetto Disegni e Stampe