page 1
page 2
page 3
page 4
page 5
page 6
page 7
page 8
page 9
page 10
page 11
page 12
page 13
page 14
page 15
page 16
page 17
page 18
page 19
page 20
page 21
page 22
page 23
page 24
page 25
page 26
page 27
page 28
page 29
page 30
page 31
page 32
page 33
page 34
page 35
page 36
page 37
page 38
page 39
page 40
page 41
page 42
page 43
page 44
page 45
page 46
page 47
page 48
page 49
page 50
page 51
page 52
page 53
page 54
page 55
page 56
page 57
page 58
page 59
page 60
page 61
page 62
page 63
page 64
page 65
page 66
page 67
page 68
page 69
page 70
page 71
page 72
page 73
page 74
page 75
page 76
page 77
page 78
page 79
page 80
page 81
page 82
page 83
page 84

OLYMPIC RESEARCH CORNEROLYMPIC REVIEW465Throughout its history, the Olympic Movement(OM) has changed in many ways. In doing so it has taken advantage of the manyopportunities offered by the growth in importance ofglobal sport. However, at the same time, the Movementhas also been regularly beset by significant internal andexternal challenges. It is necessary for the developmentof the IOC to address challenges properly in order toestablish and further develop a convincing and uprightprofile of the OM. Seven scholars collaborating with the IOC Olympic Studies Centre summarise what theysee as the key opportunities and challenges. ?LeftThe Olympic Movement faces various differentkey challenges over the coming months and years

66OLYMPIC REVIEWOLYMPIC RESEARCH CORNERRESPONSIBILITY TOWARDS ATHLETESAt the Olympic Congress in Copenhagen in 2009, theIOC stressed the importance of increasing educationaland social responsibility towards athletes. This clearlyincludes the development of strategies to motivateathletes in developing a dual career by which transitioninto professional life after top level sport could besupported. The process of successful transition intopost-athletic life is often blocked by a single mindedfocus on sporting success on the part of athletes andtheir external reference groups. Under thesecircumstances, academic and vocational training isoften pushed to the side. Counter measures have to be developed to overcome these tendencies and topromote the profile of the Olympic athlete as a rolemodel who displays responsible behaviour suitable for a life after high level sport. CULTURAL POLICYBeyond the sports event, the Olympic Games is also a cultural phenomenon that can have considerableinfluence at local, national and international level. This cultural dimension tends to be represented by themedia via popular ceremonial events, such as theOlympic torch relay and the Opening and ClosingCeremonies. The ceremonies in particular are aneffective way of displaying national customs andopenly comparing them with those of other nations. By this it is hoped to stimulate multicultural learningprocesses which promote an increase in tolerance and respect. Beyond this, the Games also incorporatea cultural and arts programme that plays a growingrole defining or contributing to respective Olympic hostcities' cultural policies, the production of local symbolsand the reinforcement of cultural values. To date,however, the Cultural Olympiad has failed to attractsignificant media attention and has remained one ofthe least visible and most misunderstood aspects ofthe Olympic experience. The need to give the CulturalOlympiad greater prominence should be an importantgoal for the OM as it seeks to keep the Games as a"live" festival, strongly connected to people in theirlocal environment and not just as a global media event only accessible via broadcast feeds or in a virtual online environment.LEADERSHIP AND CORPORATESOCIAL RESPONSIBILITYThe values, strategies and decisions of Olympic leadershave been shaped by the concrete historicalcircumstances of their times. Decision makers within theOlympic Movement need to be aware of how challengeswere dealt with in the past. This is essential becausemuch recent Olympic history has merely repeated whathas come before, albeit in new contexts. But of courseeffective leadership must also take account of theprevailing modern conditions. This is of particularimportance for organisations like the IOC, who have toadminister a historically grown set of highly moral, socialand educational values. The credible transfer of thesevalues to modern times requires far-sightednesstowards prevailing situations and concept. The buzzword here is the call for increasing corporate socialresponsibility (CSR) which is echoing loudly throughoutthe world. The nature of CSR is consistent with thephilosophical basis of the OM. This provides a greatopportunity for the IOC to make Olympism morerelevant in a contemporary 21st century world thatvalues both CSR and the Olympic Games, but generallyhas not realised the link between the two.NEW WAYS OF MASSCOMMUNICATIONThe emergence of new media challenges the IOC to reconsider the historical paradigm of masscommunication. Previous patterns of communicationhave changed and communication activities which relyon global electronic devices and networks have movedto the forefront. Internet and mobile technologies arebecoming the core of communication of the OM. The IOC has to keep pace with the rapid changes incommunication and give careful consideration toopportunities and threats. Online electronic devicesand particularly social networking media have madethe Olympic Games and discussion on thedevelopment of Olympism more accessible to peoplearound the world. This is a clear boost in increasingthe global diffusion of core values of the OM and theirmeaning for everyday life. But the growing globalaccessibility and engagement brings with it arequirement that Olympic issues are managed withthe utmost credibility and integrity by the IOC and itsstakeholders. Shortcomings will quickly become public and will lead to unwanted discussions on thegovernance of the IOC and the OM.SPORT FOR ALLThe promotion of Sport for All was a high priority topicon Pierre de Coubertin's agenda. Nowadays, againstthe background of the deepening crisis of physicalactivity around the globe, the IOC has to strengthen its efforts to enhance Sport for All. But for sportparticipation to be beneficial, it must be fullyaccessible to the intended participants, relevant totheir needs and abilities, and be conducted in safe andsupportive circumstances by professional leadership.Research shows that some forms of sport participationdo not meet these requirements, and as a result,participants drop out, or end up disliking sport. Despiteseveral OM initiatives, the health and well-being ofathletes and children's rights in sport continue to because for concern. The OM can no longer afford toleave the extent and quality of participation to chance.It must ensure effective monitoring and evaluation with a view to bringing about greater, more beneficialparticipation throughout the world.YOUTH AND SPORTCoubertin's concept of Olympism is strongly linked to the aim to support a higher participation of youth in regulated sport. This target has lost none of its importance today. One certain strategyfor making sport more appealing to the youngergenerations is the creation of new and innovativeopportunities for competition, which take intoaccount the mainstream of youth culture andsporting interest. The inaugural Youth OlympicGames will provide the ideal opportunity to getfeedback from young people on these areas.Literature suggests that ensuring quality physicaleducation and Sport for All in schools, andstrengthening collaboration between school andsport systems are other ways which couldRightTheinaugural YouthOlympic Gameswill combinesport and youth culture Below rightOlympicCeremonies can promotetolerance andrespect of others'traditions andbeliefs