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not visibly related to the Games.The Olympic Games, however, also affect certaingroups negatively. The Games serve a particularcomplex network of targets and the winners arethose who benefit from their targets being reached.Investing in Olympic Games also means that otherprojects in the city may be crowded out. Publicmoney that was spent on the Games cannot be usedfor other activities and therefore the losers are allthose who had other targets, which cannot be servedbut might have been realised had the Games nottaken place in their city. Many losers of OlympicGames are therefore from the low-income groups,given the obvious priority for basic education,affordable housing, adequate medical care and socialintegration - aspects not directly supported byOlympic Games. Additionally, the poor can suffer fromthe subsequent gentrification of the city. Whenbidding for the Games, the potential negative effectsand whether they can be borne from an economicpoint of view requires on-going research. ?OLYMPIC REVIEW67Dr. Holger Preuss is professor of sport economics and sportsociology at the Institute of SportScience, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Germany. Hisresearch fields are the economicimpact measurement, sport eventtourism, the bidding process for mega events, legacy of sport events and ambush marketing.

68OLYMPIC REVIEWLONDON 2012The charismaticChinese star iscurrently thebiggest name inbadmintonGOLDEN OPPORTUNITYOLYMPIC REVIEW CONTINUES ITS COUNTDOWN TO THE 2012 GAMESWITH EXCLUSIVE INTERVIEWS WITH STARS OF THREE MORE OF THE 26 SPORTS ON THE PROGRAMME, WHO ARE TARGETING GOLD IN LONDON