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and Philadelphia also submitted applications, but apostal vote saw London receive the overwhelmingmajority of the members' votes, with the decisionannounced in 1946. The city again found itself with only two years toprepare for the Games, and also had to face manyother difficulties that had arisen due to the war, suchas a shortage of housing, food and equipment. In order to overcome these challenges, avolunteer programme was implemented to help stage the Games, while existing sporting facilitieswere adapted to host multiple events. The EmpirePool - the first covered pool in Olympic history -was converted to also stage the majority of theboxing events. In addition, military camps, schools, colleges and hotels were used to house the athletesand officials.With rationing still in place across Britain, manyNOCs chose to bring their own food, while gifts weregratefully received from other countries, with Denmarkdonating 160,000 eggs and the Netherlands sending100 tons of fresh fruit.Due to these measures, London 1948 wouldbecome known as the "Austerity Games", but therewas also a huge amount of progress witnessedduring the Games, with new events introduced, agreater number of female competitors, morecountries than ever before taking part and a numberof technological advancements. Starting blocks and photo finishes were introducedin athletics, while the starter's pistol was linked to anelectronic timer for the first time.With superb organisation and many sportinghighlights, the London 1948 Olympic Games were heralded as a huge success, especially as they helped bring the world back together afterthe war. Czech distance runner Emil Zátopek, who wongold in the 10,000m and was second in the5,000m, said: "After all those dark days - thebombing, the killing, the starvation - the revival ofthe Olympic Games was as if the sun had comeout... Suddenly there were no frontiers, no morebarriers, just the people meeting together."54OLYMPIC REVIEWLondon 2012OLYMPIC HISTORY

Handrail Joints- Recommended to be positioned nomore than 150mm away from the centre-line of thehandrail stanchion.Handrail Stanchions- To be positioned at no more thanthe maximum recommended pitch measured along the lineof the handrail. One stanchion to be positioned no morethan 300mm from a corner.Return Bends- The stanchion is to be positioned no morethan 300mm away from the bend in rails measured alongthe line of the rails.On Stairs- A handrail stanchion is to be positioned at least300mm from the work point at the bottom of a flight whererails continue from either a platform or a previous flight.Grub screws- M8 grub screws are supplied as standard tosecure the horizontal rail to the stanchion, providingimproved stability.Lionweld Kennedy manufacture a range of tubular self-closing gates to compliment their handrail systems. Gatescan be fully fabricated to suit your size and application.Where verticle access is required, Lionweld Kennedy offer arange of cat ladders complete with safety cage.installation guidelinesgates and laddersGate DimensionsA____(mm)B____(mm)C____(mm)Tube Size25NB, 32NB, 40NB(B )(A)(C )The following information is required to determine the sizeof the gate.OLYMPIC REVIEW55SPORTING HIGHLIGHTS? The undoubted star of the Games was sprinterFanny Blankers-Koen of the Netherlands, who wongold in the 100m, 200m and the 80m hurdles, as wellas anchoring the Dutch team to gold in the 4x100mrelay. She remains the only female to win four athleticsgold medals at a Games.? Seventeen-year-old American athlete Bob Mathiaswon the decathlon, just four months after taking upthe event. He remains the youngest athlete in Olympichistory to win a men's athletics event.? Despite the 12-year break due to the Second WorldWar, several athletes defended the Olympic titles theyhad won in Berlin in 1936, including Hungarian fencerIlona Elek, who again took gold in the women'sindividual foil, and Jan Brzák-Felix of Czechoslovakia,who defended his C-2 1,000m canoeing title.? Hungary's Károly Takács won the gold medal in the25m rapid fire pistol event using his left hand, havingswitched from his right hand following an injurysustained in an army training exercise.? Two Finns starred in gymnastics, with VeikkoHuhtanen winning five medals, including three golds,and Paava Aaltonen claiming four medals, three ofwhich were also gold.? Emil Zátopek, of Czechoslovakia, one of thegreatest distance runners in history, won his firstOlympic medals by securing gold in the 10,000m andsilver in the 5,000m.? Just three months after graduating with honoursfrom the Paris Conservatory of Music, French pianist-turned-athlete Micheline Ostermeyer won gold in boththe shot put and the discus, while also claimingbronze in the high jump. ? With his victory in the Firefly class, Denmark's Paul Elvstrøm won the first of his four sailing gold medals.? Swedish kayaker Gert Fredriksson, who would goon to become the sport's most successful Olympian,won his first Olympic medals by obliterating the field inboth the 10,000m kayak singles and the 1,000mkayak singles. Facing Frenchfield star MichelineOstermeyer;Danish sailor PaulElvstrømAboveleftSeventeen-year-old BobMathias won goldin the decathlonLeft 1936 Olympicchampion IlonaElek won fencinggold again in1948 OLYMPIC HISTORYLondon 2012