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a significant contribution to global warming. Road traffic accounts for roughly 20 per cent of global greenhouse gas emissions. According to a Shell study, the number of private automobiles on the world's streets and highways will double by 2030 to about 1.4 billion. Electric cars are a good way to reduce emissions in cities. Electric motors use energy about three times more efficiently than combustion engines. They can also serve as mobile energy storage devices. If wind and solar power systems generate too much energy when demand is low, electric cars can temporarily store the surplus in their batteries and feed it back into the power grid when needed. As a result, electric cars will play a key role in the creation of a green future in which electricity will be generated from renewable sources and transported to consumers through intelligent distribution networks.Mass transit systems can also make a vital contribution to climate protection and to increasing the quality of urban life. In the emerging countries, it is often necessary to build new infrastructures from scratch. In the industrial countries, on the other hand, the main task is to upgrade existing networks. In Oslo, for example, Siemens has supplied ecofriendly trains that are up to 95 per cent recyclable. In addition, as much as 46 per cent of the energy expended in operating the Oslo trains is recovered by feeding braking energy back into the power system.To optimise transportation networks over the long term, Siemens offers Complete Mobility - a comprehensive solution that integrates all components of a transportation system. In the future, travelers will not only access subway, bus, train and plane timetables and up-to-the-minute traffic information via their smart phones in real time, they will also check possible routes and combinations and reserve tickets online. The advantages: fewer traffic jams and fewer reservation delays. A first prototype of Siemens' Complete Mobility solution was presented at the sixth German National IT Summit in Munich at the end of 2011.Complete solutions will also be a decisive factor in achieving sustainability in the area of power generation. Germany, for example, has launched a new energy policy that will demonstrate, among other things, that energy transformation is possible worldwide. The German government, which has decided to withdraw from nuclear power by 2022, intends to increase the share of renewable energies like wind and solar power in the country's energy mix to 80 per cent and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in Germany by 80 per cent by 2050. The implementation of the new energy policy is a complex puzzle whose solution will require major efforts from all participants. Most of the necessary technologies are already available. Some are still being developed. But it is the framework conditions that will be decisive for success. Here, governments will have to actively create appropriate incentives and, where necessary, accelerate approval processes - for the construction of power superhighways, for instance - without neglecting popular participation. In the future, power generation will increasingly rely on renewable energies like wind power, solar power, hydropower, biomass and geothermal power. And the change is already underway. For example, the world's largest offshore wind farm is now being built at the mouth of the River Thames. The London Array is scheduled to start supplying climate-friendly electricity to some 750,000 British households in 2013. The transmission of green energies over vast distances without significant loss is another challenge. A power superhighway from Siemens shows how it can be mastered: a high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) distribution system installed by the company is currently linking hydropower plants in China's Yunnan Province with the million-strong cities of its highly industrialised Guangdong region. Ninety-five percent of the electricity transported over the 1,400-kilometre line reaches its destination - a level of efficiency inconceivable with alternating-current systems. HVDC technologies have a wide range of applications. For instance, they can also be used to connect offshore wind farms to onshore grids and to transmit electricity to consumption centers from solar power plants located in the desert.If energy systems are to become sustainable, integrated measures will have to be implemented in ten main areas. First, electricity will have to be used as efficiently as possible - in buildings, industry, households and transportation networks. Next, renewable energies will have to be developed to the point that they generate power at competitive prices and can be transmitted to consumers over long-distance power lines. Since coal-fired power plants will continue to supply base-load electricity for many years to come, their functioning must be made as efficient as possible. The greenhouse gases that the plants emit will have to be sequestered or reused in industry. Not only are combined cycle power plants, which utilise gas-fired as well as steam turbines, the world's most efficient producers of electricity; they can also be ramped up very quickly to fill the breach when power generation from wind and solar sources is insufficient to meet demand. High-performance energy storage devices like batteries and Pictured on previous page: CO2-free energy production with wind energy is an option around the globe: New Zealand's West Wind Farm produces electricity for the same price as coal-fired generation, mainly thanks to strong winds100 smart cities

electrolysis-produced hydrogen will be needed whenever and wherever surplus power is generated. Smart grids will be required to help balance production and consumption - and also to regulate consumption by ways of demand management, if necessary - while smart financing models will be needed across the board.To ensure the long-term success of the new German energy policy, these measures will have to fit together perfectly, like the pieces of an intricate puzzle. All the solutions described here are offered or developed by Siemens - a company that is devoting its know-how and technology to creating a sustainable future. So that urban centres will remain attractive, livable spaces for innovation and the exchange of ideas. And so that people in the centuries to come will still find inspiration in the streets of their cities - just as Socrates did in Athens nearly 2,500 years ago. nAbout the AuthorPeter Löscher has been President of the Managing Board and Chief Executive Officer at Siemens AG since 2007. In 1985, he became a Senior Management Consultant at Kienbaum Consulting Group. In 2000, he became Chairman, President and CEO of Aventis Pharma Ltd., Japan. In 2002, Mr Löscher became President of Amersham Health and then Chief Operating Officer at Amersham Plc. In 2004, he joined General Electric as President and CEO of GE Healthcare Bio-Sciences. In 2006, he became President of Global Human Health at Merck & Co., Inc." Cities also pose the largest threat to the world's climate, accounting for about 70 per cent of the planet's greenhouse gas emissions. "Above: Singapore is living proof, that sustainability and economic success are not mutually exclusivesmart cities 101