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transparency and accountability framework for both developed and developing countries. We also fully operationalised a number of international mechanisms to enable and support mitigation and adaptation efforts in developing countries, particularly for adaptation efforts needed in least developed, African and Small Island countries that are most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change but who have contributed least to the problem. Crucially, we have been able to preserve the multilateral rules-based system underpinning the mitigation regime by agreeing on a second commitment period under the Kyoto protocol, through agreement to amend the protocol, setting up a five-year 2nd commitment period from 2013 to 2018. The pledged economy-wide targets of developed countries are inscribed in the decision. These will be further converted into legally binding Quantified Emission Limitation and Reduction Objectives (QELRO's) at COP18 / CMP8 in Qatar. However, the fact that the USA has not joined the Kyoto Protocol and the fact that not all developed countries were willing to place their commitments under the Kyoto was recognised. To address this gap, we have established a process to increase the transparency of the mitigation efforts of both developed and developing countries. In order to ensure the full participation of those developed countries that have indicated that they will not enter into a 2nd commitment period under Kyoto as well as large developing country emerging econ-omies, these commitments under Kyoto are balanced with a mechanism to capture, under the convention, the economy-wide emission reduction targets of these developed countries and subject them to the International Assessment and Reporting transparency and accountability procedures. In the case of developed countries, we will review and assess their economy- wide emission reduction targets and commitments. In the case of developing countries, we will increase the transparency of their nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) of developing countries. At this COP/CMP we have also succeeded in bringing into operation the outcomes that were successfully negotiated in Cancun last year. On finance, there is agreement on the detailed design of the Green Climate Fund, which Minister Trevor Manuel successfully steered through a year of difficult negotiations. The design of the fund includes innovative mechanisms for bringing private sector and market mechanisms into play, so as to increase the potential flow of funding into climate change responses.We have also operationalised the Climate Technology Centre and Network, launched a selection process for the host of the Climate Technology Centre and fine-tuned the procedures and modalities for the TEC. This will substantially strengthen the UNFCCC's operational arm on technology and will assist developing countries " We realised in Durban that given the current social, developmental, economic and political context, trying to force countries to do more than they are willing and able to contribute is a recipe for the complete failure of the international effort to genuinely address the climate crisis "in the negotiation of technology partnerships and transfer agreements, and in adapting these technologies to country purposes. It will also assist with license negotiations, and the establishment of national innovation systems for a low-carbon and climate resilient future.In addressing the question of what needs to be done in future, this COP has reaffirmed a common vision for global cooperation on climate change to hold the increase in global average temperature below 2 degrees or 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and to review progress towards achieving it, in accordance with the objectives and principles of the Convention. We recognise that the ambition and scope of current commitments are inadequate. Even if the most ambitious current emissions targets are met, emissions will exceed what science requires by an estimated 5 Gigaton (Gt) of CO2 equivalent emissions, according to the UN Environment Programme's Emissions Gap Report. The question that we face is how best to address this gap recognising that it is more than just an "ambition gap"; it is also an "implementation gap!; a "financial and technology gap"; a "capacity gap" and a "legal gap".We realised in Durban that given the current social, developmental, economic and political context, trying to force countries to do more than they are willing and able to contribute is a recipe for the complete failure of the international effort to genuinely address the climate crisis and would have resulted in a "no deal" in Durban; not only killing the Kyoto Protocol but possibly even the UN Convention on climate change itself. The solution is to build a system that gradually transitions to a low-carbon future, that at the same time creates jobs, reduces poverty and improves the quality of life for all. This is a true sustainable development solution to the climate change crisis. Therefore, under the Convention, agreement was reached on the Durban platform, which initiates negotiations leading to a legal instrument, protocol or agreed outcome with legal force applicable to all countries, that will be adopted by 2015 and be fully operational no later than 2020. We must recognise that this outstanding success was achieved through the efforts of TEAM SOUTH AFRICA, which involved herculean efforts of not only national, provincial and local governments but dedicated efforts of our civil society, labour and business sectors, who not only mobilised their international counterparts but demonstrated the warm welcoming spirit and culture of our wonderful country. nPictured: Edna MolewaThis is an edited version of the statement delivered by Minister Edna Molewa on the outcomes of the international negotiations under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change COP17 and its Kyoto Protocol CMP7, delivered by Minister Edna Molewa Source: The Department of Environmental Affairs, South Africa. post-durban remarks 041

Implications of the Durban Outcome for Enhancing Action on Climate ChangeChristiana Figueres, Executive Secretary, The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Next to increasing investments and budding national policies, international climate policy is becoming clearer and is now an important contributing factor to sustainable development and the clean energy revolution. In that context, allow me to give you a quick overview of the Durban Climate Change Conference and its outcomes.Although media reporting was mixed, I believe that time will show that the Durban Climate Change Conference was the most encompassing and furthest reaching conference in the history of the climate change negotiations. In terms of mitigation, Durban accomplished three crucial outcomes, with increasing levels of ambition:1. It achieved a second commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol, starting January 2013, thereby ensuring the continuity of the legal system and of the Kyoto rules. At the first session in May this year, governments will have to agree on the length of the commitment period - either five or eight years - to enable the process of inscribing quantified emission reductions in the second commitment period. But the Protocol only covers 10-15 per cent of global emissions, and governments know efforts must go way beyond that. So in Durban governments also confirmed their intent to undertake broader and immediate mitigation action outside of the Protocol.2. Under the Convention Durban cemented mitigation plans of all industrialised nations plus 49 developing countries. The sum of those countries accounts for 80 per cent of global emissions, so a higher level of participation than under the Kyoto Protocol, but this " Universal participation in legally grounded mitigation targets is a remarkable departure from the past and is Durban's major gift." participation will be voluntary (although rigorously measured) from now until 2020.3. Governments know there must be more certainty than that which is offered by voluntary action, so in Durban they also decided to embark on a future legal framework that will cover all nations of the world, to be negotiated by 2015, and go into effect by 2020. Universal participation in legally grounded mitigation targets is a remarkable departure from the past and is Durban's major gift.A strategy as ambitious as the above must be effectively supported and responsibly guided. Governments have therefore in Durban further established the infrastructure to support developing countries. Durban saw the successful launch of the Adaptation Committee, the Green Climate Fund, and the Technology Mechanism. Last, but perhaps most importantly, in Durban, there was a clear realisation that the level of mitigation ambition needs to be raised beyond that which is on the table.Current emission reduction pledges account for only 60 per cent of what is needed to stabilise temperature rise to below 2°C, let alone the 1.5°C that is needed to keep vulnerable communities safe. In realisation of this shortcoming, countries agreed to an immediate work programme on increasing mitigation levels, now, up to and beyond 2015.With these results, there is no doubt that Durban delivered beyond expectations. While much of its outcomes are complex and technical, two things stand out:the universal political will to act on climate change is tangible and even more so than the previous 042 post-durban remarks