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PV could provide more than a fifth of the global electricity demand.After many years of impressive growth, the solar PV industry now faces major challenges even as our technology approaches competitiveness with conventional electricity sources. In the coming years, we will need to work to create new markets and business models for PV. We will also need to make sure that policymakers understand the importance of maintaining a stable regulatory environment and of markets based on principles of free and fair trade and competition principles. In these difficult times, governments are naturally struggling with budgetary concerns and rethinking public support schemes; private financing is also less certain, with investors who are nervous and banks that are reluctant to lend. Companies will have to find new markets and new business models to adapt to these changing realities. Policy and regulatory stability - subsidies that are phased out gradually rather than abruptly - will be more important than ever. We also need governments to remove bureaucratic obstacles to PV deployment - a cost-effective way to promote the uptake of the technology. And we should not forget, as International Energy Agency Executive Director Maria van der Hoeven recently pointed out in an article in European Energy Review, government subsidies to fossil fuels (which are usually completely non-transparent) globally in 2010 were six times higher than economic incentives to renewable energy (US$409 billion vs. US$66 billion).The challenges we face may seem daunting. But the fact that the global market for PV has continued to grow even in times of economic crisis shows there is a demand that can withstand a difficult period. With proper policy support, balanced market development, and continued industry innovation, the world's most promising source of electricity can continue its remarkable growth rate well into the future. Now there is a thought to keep you warm even in the middle of winter. nabout the authorReinhold Buttgereit has been Secretary General of EPIA since May 2011. Previously, he worked in public affairs and lobbying for Vattenfall Europe for 12 years. Mr Buttgereit has also worked as an expert in environmental impact assessment, mediation and project management at the technical consultancy firm Prognos as well as at the Berlin utility Bewag. He earned his PhD in Landscape Architecture from Technical University of Berlin." We also need governments to remove bureaucratic obstacles to PV deployment "renewable energy 061

Coal: Cleaner Energy for All T here are currently 1.3 billion people across the globe that lack access to modern electricity. The world needs to come together to address this major challenge. All energy sources have a role to play in delivering energy to those who need it, but coal will be front and centre in solving the energy poverty crisis.At a recent speech the International Energy Agency's Chief Economist, Dr Fatih Birol, described coal as "the forgotten fuel". In the context of 20 years of debates about addressing climate change and calls to reduce the use of the world's fossil fuels, 2010 saw coal's share in global energy consumption at its highest level since 1970. According to the IEA's 2011 World Energy Outlook (WEO) "coal unquestionably won the energy race in the first decade of the 21st century" matching all other energy sources combined in providing incremental electricity supply. In the last 30 years worldwide coal consumption has increased from 3.7 billion tons per year to an amount approaching 8 billion tons per year today. This is explosive growth indeed and the past will be prologue. The fact is that coal is the world's second largest source of primary energy and largest supplier of electricity - about 40 per cent of global electricity generation comes from coal. Even in the face of action on climate change, coal's role is forecast " improving the efficiency of coal-fired power generation is among the cheapest and easiest ways to reduce CO2 emissions "Fredrick D. Palmer, Chairman, World Coal Association (WCA)Milton Catelin, Chief Executive, World Coal Association (WCA)Siemens Press Picture062 clean coal technologyFigure 1: Incremental world primary energy demand by fuel, 2000 - 2010