page 1
page 2
page 3
page 4
page 5
page 6
page 7
page 8
page 9
page 10
page 11
page 12
page 13
page 14
page 15
page 16
page 17
page 18
page 19
page 20
page 21
page 22
page 23
page 24
page 25
page 26
page 27
page 28
page 29
page 30
page 31
page 32
page 33
page 34
page 35
page 36
page 37
page 38
page 39
page 40
page 41
page 42
page 43
page 44
page 45
page 46
page 47
page 48
page 49
page 50
page 51
page 52
page 53
page 54
page 55
page 56
page 57
page 58
page 59
page 60
page 61
page 62
page 63
page 64
page 65
page 66
page 67
page 68
page 69
page 70
page 71
page 72
page 73
page 74
page 75
page 76
page 77
page 78
page 79
page 80
page 81
page 82
page 83
page 84
page 85
page 86
page 87
page 88
page 89
page 90
page 91
page 92
page 93
page 94
page 95
page 96
page 97
page 98
page 99
page 100
page 101
page 102
page 103
page 104
page 105
page 106
page 107
page 108
page 109
page 110
page 111
page 112
page 113
page 114
page 115
page 116
page 117
page 118
page 119
page 120
page 121
page 122
page 123
page 124
page 125
page 126
page 127
page 128
page 129
page 130
page 131
page 132
page 133
page 134
page 135
page 136
page 137
page 138
page 139
page 140

Recently, "green growth" has become the centre of policy debates about the economy and environment. The OECD reports that: "We need to make growth greener, to make our economic and environmental policies more compatible and even mutually-reinforcing. This is not just a matter of new technologies or new sources of renewable, safe energy. It is about how we all behave every day of our lives, what we eat, what we drink, what we recycle, re-use, repair, how we produce and how we consume."Reflecting on the global financial crisis, the United Nations General Assembly and several UN agencies underscored that the crisis represents an opportunity to promote green economy initiatives as part of the stimulus packages being put in place to support the recovery. Furthermore, when the General Assembly decided to call a UN Conference on Sustainable Development, to be held in June 2012 in Rio de Janeiro, it chose as one of its major themes "a green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication."Sustainable development emphasises a holistic, equitable and far-sighted approach. It emphasises not just strong economic performance but intra-generational and inter-generational equity. It rests on integration and a balanced consideration of social, economic and environmental goals and objectives in both public and private decision-making.WATER PROBLEMS = ECONOMIC PROBLEMSIncreases in greenhouse gases saw the last decade recording the highest global average temperatures. Climate change is disrupting the natural hydrological cycle causing havoc, destruction and unprecedented damage to economies worldwide through extreme climate events such as floods and drought. The IMF warns that deteriorating climatic conditions could lower GDP growth due to reductions in output and productivity, particularly in the least developed countries and in sectors such as agriculture, fisheries, and tourism.Without investment in water resources management to build climate resilience, natural shocks can cause dramatic falls in GDP growth. Climate variability is known (e.g. in Ethiopia and Zimbabwe) to reduce growth by as much as 38 per year with poverty worsening by 25 per cent in 12 years. Floods and droughts have a big impact on economies as well as in the loss of livelihoods and life. Yet more frequent and severe floods and droughts are a major result of the speeding up of the hydrological cycle, brought about by global warming. The World Bank estimates the 2010 flood damage in Pakistan to be about US$10 billion, while in Australia the estimated cost of rebuilding Queensland following the floods in 2011 is AU$9.8 billion. In Kenya, the 1997-98 floods caused an 11 per cent drop in GDP and the drought of 1999-2000, a further drop of 16 per cent. In Rwanda, the direct economic costs of the 2007 flood were estimated to be US$ 4-20 million in two regions. In 2002, 13 million people in southern Africa needed food relief due to drought, and today we see a similar situation unfolding in the Sahel.From the Himalayas to the Andes to Kilimanjaro, Credit: Rical Rodriguez/Nikki Sandinom Victoriano/PWP/GWP074 water

Pictured left: Rising water level Below left: Dr Ania Grobicki Below: Filling Tanks " If we are to nourish today's 925 million hungry and the additional 2 billion people expected to be born by 2050, investments in agricultural water efficiency are paramount "glaciers are melting, while Arctic sea ice is disappearing. The iconic Mount Kilimanjaro has lost one third of its ice fields in the last two decades and the rest of its ice could disappear by 2015. Where glacier melt provides a major source of irrigation and drinking water during the summer, as in South American and South Asian countries, the shrinking and disappearance of glaciers means that water supply for many people will hit a wall. How can the world prepare for this? Promoting water security and climate resilient development will reinforce the overarching objectives of Rio+20 and the recent outcomes from the UNFCCC COP 17 convention in Durban: building the green economy and sustainable development, achieving the Millennium Development Goals, and strengthening international climate action. Clean, accessible water for all is an essential part of "The future we want" - the theme for Rio +20. There is sufficient fresh water on the planet to achieve this. But due to bad economics, poor water infrastructure, and poor water management, every year millions of people, most of them women and children, die from diseases associated with inadequate water supply, sanitation and hygiene. Water scarcity, poor water quality and inadequate sanitation negatively impact food security, livelihood choices and educational opportunities. Drought afflicts some of the world's poorest countries, worsening hunger and malnutrition. By 2050, at least one in four people is likely to live in a country affected by chronic or recurring shortages of fresh water. Yet in many countries, agriculture uses 70 to 90 per cent of the fresh water available. Growing cities are inevitably competing for this water where the resources are scarce.Agriculture, forestry and fisheries can provide nutritious food for all and generate decent incomes, while supporting people-centred development and protecting the environment - but only if there is water security and water resources are safeguarded. If we are to nourish today's 925 million hungry and the additional 2 billion people expected to be born by 2050, investments in agricultural water efficiency are paramount. A profound transformation of the global food and agriculture system is needed, based upon better management of scarce water resources.The hope of many is that a green economy will create green jobs. But there can be no green jobs without water, which, when properly managed, brings benefits across an entire economy. n ACKNOWLEDGEMENTThis article was prepared with the expertise of the Global Water Partnership, an international network of 13 Regional and 80 Country Water Partnerships, and more than 2,500 institutional partners in 158 countries. The GWP network is committed to the sustainable development and management of water resources at all levels.Global Water Partnership (GWP)Drottninggatan 33SE-11151 Stockholm, SwedenTel: +46 (0) 8 522 126www.gwp.orgABOUT THE AUTHORDr Ania Grobicki is the Executive Secretary of the Global Water Partnership. Dr Grobicki has spent most of her working life on water-related issues, holding positions in the private sector as well as with NGOs and the U.N. She has a PhD in Biotechnology from Imperial College, London.Credit: GWPwater 075