page 1
page 2
page 3
page 4
page 5
page 6
page 7
page 8
page 9
page 10
page 11
page 12
page 13
page 14
page 15
page 16
page 17
page 18
page 19
page 20
page 21
page 22
page 23
page 24
page 25
page 26
page 27
page 28
page 29
page 30
page 31
page 32
page 33
page 34
page 35
page 36
page 37
page 38
page 39
page 40
page 41
page 42
page 43
page 44
page 45
page 46
page 47
page 48
page 49
page 50
page 51
page 52
page 53
page 54
page 55
page 56
page 57
page 58
page 59
page 60
page 61
page 62
page 63
page 64
page 65
page 66
page 67
page 68
page 69
page 70
page 71
page 72
page 73
page 74
page 75
page 76
page 77
page 78
page 79
page 80
page 81
page 82
page 83
page 84
page 85
page 86
page 87
page 88
page 89
page 90
page 91
page 92
page 93
page 94
page 95
page 96
page 97
page 98
page 99
page 100
page 101
page 102
page 103
page 104
page 105
page 106
page 107
page 108
page 109
page 110
page 111
page 112
page 113
page 114
page 115
page 116
page 117
page 118
page 119
page 120
page 121
page 122
page 123
page 124
page 125
page 126
page 127
page 128
page 129
page 130
page 131
page 132
page 133
page 134
page 135
page 136
page 137
page 138
page 139
page 140

toolbox. The first ever environmental negotiation in the history of the multilateral trading system was launched 10 years ago. Some of it would contribute directly to sustainable growth. I am especially referring to the opening of trade to environmentally-friendly goods and services at the WTO. At the moment, on the negotiating table there are many climate adaptation and mitigation technologies, whose export in recent years has totalled US$165 billion. They include goods such as wind turbines, solar cooking appliances, and photovoltaic cells. These goods should cease to be penalised at national borders through tariffs. We must make clean technology, and especially climate-friendly technology, more affordable and accessible to all.But a negotiation was also launched at the WTO on the reduction or elimination of environmentally-harmful fisheries subsidies - yet another leg of sustainable growth. A negotiation aimed at a model of growth that would discourage the depletion of scarce environmental resources. The proponents of new rules on fisheries subsidies in the WTO argue that an estimated US$14-20 billion of annual subsidies are depleting the world's fish stock. They have artificially inflated the size of the global fishing fleet. The size of this fleet, combined with massive advances in fishing technology - in particular trawling - have caused alarm. Whereas in 1950, our fish catch amounted to 20 million tons, in recent years it has soared to over 80 million tons. But did our fish stock also grow? Sadly not. Instead, some of the world's oldest living fish species are on the verge of extinction. At Rio + 20 we must not ask whether we want green growth, but how to make that growth possible. The WTO, as the regulator of global trade can contribute to this: the already mandated environmental negotiations in the WTO should be brought to closure. Emphasis must also remain on concluding a global climate accord. We cannot risk a climate trade conflict. n"At the moment, on the negotiating table there are many climate adaptation and mitigation technologies, whose export in recent years has totalled US$165 billion"FINANCE AND INVESTMENT 091

Rio at the intersection of health and sustainabilityH uman beings are at the centre of concerns for sustainable development. They are entitled to a healthy and productive life in harmony with nature". Principle 1 of the 1992 Rio Declaration on Environment and DevelopmentoverviewTwenty years on, the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development represents an opportunity to set the world back onto a sustainable development path in which better and more equitable health outcomes play a key role.In these past two decades, the world has made significant economic and technological advances, as well as advancing towards attainment of a number of the Millennium Development Goals that address poverty and ill health. These positive trends, however, have been accompanied by economic disparities and inequalities, social inequity, persistent gender inequality, a growing deterioration of the environment, as well as recurrent economic, financial, energy and food crises. Rio+20 is a forum where sustainable development policies can be revitalized and strategies redefined, in the context of a green economy and poverty reduction. The themes are shaped around strategies in seven sectors and settings, including: jobs, energy, cities, food, water, oceans, disasters. But cross cutting to all of these areas is human health. Rio+20 offers an important opportunity to " Unhealthy living and work environments contribute to as much as one-quarter of deaths and illness globally "Dr Maria Neira, Director, Department of Public Health and Environment, World Health Organization (WHO)re-examine and reinforce the relationship between health and sustainable development in line with the original Rio Declaration, with a special focus on three key issues: Universal health coverage: a healthy population can more effectively work, earn and contribute to sustainable development; Health in a "green economy": sustainable development strategies need to ensure that urban and rural environments are healthy places to live and work, reducing environmental health risks and hazards, particularly in poor communities; Health relevant milestones and measures of progress: health is relatively easy to measure and health-relevant measures of future sustainable development progress. Historical review While health was one of the foundations of the first Rio Conference, and of its resulting Conventions, integration of health and environment policy in the intervening two decades has been weak. This has represented a missed opportunity to promote human health through more sustainable development choices, and to use health evidence as a compelling argument for a green economy. To take one example; although almost all of the least-developed countries cite health protection among their top concerns from climate change, fewer than one in four have an adequate health vulnerability and adaptation assessment. Less than 1 per cent of multilateral adaptation funding flows to health, meeting less 092 health