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124INNOVATION UK automobile. Or, awards are given for new ways of creating and promulgating " green" thinking through new systems or processes. » » Social and Economic Innovation refers to the technologies or business practices that improve everyday lives. A typical example was Muhammed Yunnus for his development of microcredit. » » Computing and Telecommunications includes the development of hardware, software, security, as well as all telecommunication standards, process and devices. » » Consumer Products and Services may include the product itself, but also the process, media or design that has made the product truly unique and universally accepted. » » The " No Boundaries" award is given for technology-based products or services that don't fit neatly into any other category. The first winner was the developer of the blue- violet laser, Shuji Nakamura. In addition to these individual awards, The Economist now recognises corporate innovation, with an award that goes not to an individual, but to an enterprise that has suc-cessfully institutionalised the process of innovation to benefit its shareholders, customers and partners. With the exception of the corporate innovation award, the winners are nominated by Economist readers, jour-nalists and members of an international faculty of 31 judges ( many of whom were former winners), including the chief executive of UK Trade & Investment, Andrew Cahn. The Economist researches the nominees, eliminat-ing those where one or more of the three criteria of idea, commercialisation and broader success aren't met. The judges then select the winners in all categories, except for corporate innovation, where the winner is selected by the newspaper itself. The 2008 winners included Bill and Melinda Gates for Social and Economic Innovation; Sir Martin Evans for stem cell research in the Bioscience category; Sumio Iijima for his work developing carbon nanotubes in the No Boundaries category; Matti Makkonen for SMS text messaging in Compu- ­ting and Telecommunications; Steve Chen and Chad Hurley for YouTube in Consumer Products and Services; Arthur Rosenfeld for his work as an energy efficiency pioneer in Energy and the Environment; Jimmy Wales for Wikipedia in Business Process; and Nokia for corporate innovation. Robin Bew, Editorial Director, Economist Intelligence Unit Matthew Bishop, Chief Business Writer and American Business Editor, The Economist Andrew Cahn, Chief Executive, UK Trade & Investment Marvin H. Caruthers, Distinguished Professor of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado Hermes Chan, President and CEO, MedMira Martin Cooper, Chairman and CEO, ArrayComm George Craford, Chief Technology Officer, Philips Lumileds Lighting Company Hernando de Soto, Chairman, Institute for Liberty and Democracy ( ILD) Rodney Ferguson, Managing Director, Panorama Capital Janus Friis, Founder, Atomico, Joost; Former Director of Strategy and Innovation, Skype Lisa Gansky, Director, Dos Margaritas; Founder, Ofoto François Grey, Head of IT Communications, CERN, and Visiting Professor, Tsinghua University Vic Hayes, Former Chair, IEEE 802.11, Standards Working Group for Wireless LANs Mo Ibrahim, Founder, Mo Ibrahim Foundation; Former Chair, Celtel Paul Jackson, Principal Analyst, Forrester Research B. V. Mike Lazaridis, President and Co- Chief Executive Officer, Research in Motion, Ltd. Matti Makkonen, Co- developer, Short Message Service ( SMS) Yoichiro Matsumoto, Professor, Dean of Engineering Faculty, University of Tokyo Ed McBride, Business Editor, The Economist Louis Monier, Founder, Alta Vista Andrew Odlyzko, Professor, School of Mathematics, University of Minnesota Andrea Pfeifer, CEO, AC Immune SA Sam Pitroda, Chairman, National Knowledge Commission, India C. K. Prahalad, Professor of Corporate Strategy, Stephen M. Ross School of Business, University of Michigan Navi Radjou, Executive Director, Centre for India & Global Business, Judge Business School, Cambridge University Rinaldo Rinolfi, Executive Vice President, Fiat Research Paul Saffo, Technology Forecaster Jerry Simmons, Deputy Director for Energy Sciences of the Center for Physical, Chemical, and Nano- Sciences, Sandia National Laboratories Tom Standage, Editor, Technology Quarterly, The Economist ( Chairman) Vijay Vaitheeswaran, Biotechnology Correspondent, The Economist Jeff Weedman, Vice- president of External Business Development, Procter & Gam For more information about this year's honorees, past winners and other details of The Economist's Innovation Awards please visit: www. economistinnovation. com E- mail: customerserviceuk@ economist. com Tel: 020 7576 8118 The judges for the 2009 awards are: Open Innovation THE ECONOMIST

In the global race for sustainable energy solutions, North East England is leading the field. The pioneering testing facilities offered by NaREC, the New and Renewable Energy Centre in Blyth, coupled with a flourishing bio- fuel sector, provided the perfect environment for global energy giant Yanmar to develop its 100% bio- diesel combined heat and power system. Sustainable energy: increasing efficiency and reducing energy bills of the future. Find out more about the region's pioneering work in renewable energy at www. northeastengland. co. uk/ renewables " Cleanerenergy for the planet. Sustained by NorthEastEngland." Makoto Yasuda, Yanmar Campaign led by