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158INNOVATION UK UK Astronomy Technology Centre The UK Astronomy Technology Centre ( UK ATC) is the UK's national facility for astronomy instrumentation. As part of the Science and Technology Facilities Council ( STFC), and based at the Royal Observatory Edinburgh, we design and build world- class astronomical technol-ogy for both space- based and ground- based observato-ries. As such we work collaboratively with many national and international organisations, and have a strong track record with major space organisations including ESA and NASA. Our involvement in space- related and ground- based astronomy projects spans over 30 years. In order to deliver this we have built extensive engineering expertise in areas such as cryogenics, optics, opto- mechanical struc-tures and mechanisms and detectors coupled to strong systems engineering, project management and software expertise. Furthermore we have the necessary exper-tise in the additional requirements placed on delicate instruments that have to survive the rigours of spacecraft launch and operation in the harsh environment of space. Our mandate in the space field is to design, build and qualify space- based instruments for scientific missions such as the optical design for a camera for the ISO ( Infra-red Space Observatory) satellite where we supplied quali-fied lenses, filters, filter- wheels and mounts. In operation between 1995 and 1998, ISO was the world's first true orbiting infrared observatory and provided astronomers worldwide with a facility of unprecedented sensitivity. The project was a great technical, operational and scien-tific success and its scientific results impacted practically all fields of astronomy. ESA's Herschel Space Observatory, which successfully launched on 14 May this year, also contained hardware designed, built and qualified by the UK ATC. The beam-steering mirror, a critical component of the SPIRE ( Spec-tral and Photometric Imaging Receiver) instrument, was developed at the UK ATC. It is an exceptionally accurate active mirror, operational at extreme cryogenic tempera-tures. The UK ATC was also involved in the overall instru-ment design, contributing to the initial camera optics and layout, the focal plane systems engineering and the instrument control software. Early results indicate that SPIRE, and the critical beam steering mirror, are operating perfectly. The UK ATC is also developing flight hardware for the James Webb Space Telescope, a flagship NASA/ ESA mission. We have the European scientific lead for the Mid InfraRed Instrument ( MIRI) along with engineering systems lead roles, and have designed, built and tested the highly complex spectrometer pre- optics module (~ 60 optical components totalling ~ 180 surfaces). This mod-ule will enable the instrument to perform hyper- spectral imaging by using a set of four diamond machined image slicers. The JWST will launch in approximately 2014. Finally, the UK ATC also has extensive experience of ground- based astronomy instrumentation projects. Examples include WFCAM, the Wide Field Infrared Cam-era, which was delivered to the United Kingdom Infra- Red Telescope ( UKIRT) in Hawaii in 2004 and VISTA, the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy recently delivered to the European Southern Observa-tory's ( ESO) Cerro Paranal Observatory in Chile. We are currently assembling an infrared multi- object integral field spectrometer ( KMOS) for ESO. In conclusion, the UK ATC has extensive experience in both space and ground- based applications. This experi-ence is now being leveraged into other non- astronomy projects ( eg LIDAR for ESA) and other commercial work. The UK ATC has a dedicated commercial arm which exploits the technology and skills built up through our extensive experience. We are always looking for scientific, technological and commercial partners so please contact us to discuss your particular application. For further information contact: Telephone: + 44 ( 0) 131 668 8295 Fax: + 44 ( 0) 131 668 8445 E- mail: info@ atcinnovations. com ATC Innovations commerical website: www. atcinnovations. com Main UK ATC website: www. roe. ac. uk/ ukatc ABOVE: Alignment of the MIRI spectrometer pre- optics module in a UK ATC clean- room Centres of Excellence UK Science & inovation parks: UK astronomy technology centre

INNOVATION UK159 Living laboratories Universities and science parks as engines for sustainable urbanisation. By Dr Robin Daniels The urbanisation of the world's growing population is accelerating. People are justifiably migrating into the cities in the hope of improving their living conditions, employment, education and healthcare prospects. This is particularly true of the developing world, where the environmental implications of rapid population growth continue to be magnified by large and resource- intensive infrastructure projects. Despite the seemingly long timeframe associated with many of these city developments, their implications are being felt now. A report produced this year by the Global Humanitarian Forum provided evidence that more than 300,000 people a year are dying from the effects of climate change - a figure that is expected to rise to a half- million annually by 2030. Furthermore, 10% of the world's popu-lation will be somehow affected by the climate change within the next 10 years. The economic costs of climate change are also steep, the report finds. By 2030, the economic losses due to climate change will have reached $ 340 billion annually. The international scientific and business communities have pivotal roles to play in discovering, developing, commer-cialising and deploying the technology required to both significantly de- carbonise the world's economies and mit-igate the unavoidable effects of environmental change. Inside universities, companies and science parks around the world, scientists, engineers and business people are collaborating to accelerate critical technological advances. Very significant public and private- sector investment into the development of energy, transportation and construc-tion technologies in particular is stimulating much- needed and largely productive collaborative research across busi-ness sectors and between science domains. However, progress is just not fast enough. On average it still takes 10 years to take a physical science discovery with commercial potential to market. The number of lives lost during such a time lag is not difficult to calculate. What is required now is a new model, which drives the robust and rapid scale- up and deployment of technologies. The traditional linear model of technology commercialisation consists of discovery, prototype, pilot, productisation and scale- up. We don't have the time to continue with this model alone - and this is where science parks and universities come in. The engine rooms of new ideas, the well- springs of new talent to meet these challenges have the opportunity to become the proving grounds also. Universities and science parks, already practising open and collaborative innova-tion in many cases, must become living laboratories for new technologies, utilising their infrastructure and criti-cal mass of captive consumers to trial, test and develop technologies for national and global markets. Such an approach would deliver multiple and significant benefits to those organisations with the courage to take up the challenge. Not only will they reduce their carbon footprint, thereby driving down energy costs, there is the opportunity to transform the way that research and education are con-ducted: aligning form with function. The commercial potential is also significant. Turning a 20,000 student campus into a living laboratory provides immediate scale- up potential and the capability to accel-erate not only the " proof of concept" stage of technol-ogy transfer, but it even begins to drive down costs of delivery and commoditise specific elements. To take a simple example, estimate the number of next- generation low- energy light bulbs required to illuminate an entire uni-versity. Now imagine those light bulbs being produced by a spin- out company from the university itself. Now that's smart procurement. Finally, the positive effects on research quality, income from IP licensing and reputational value of the university or science park would individually provide significant justification for such a radical strategic innova-tion - and radical innovation is what is required. Robin Daniels is Chief Executive of the Norwich Research Park UK. The views expressed here are his own. For more information, contact: Dr Robin CE Daniels, Chief Executive, Norwich Research Park Norwich, NR4 7UH, UK Tel: + 44 ( 0) 1603 450992 Website: www. nrp. org. uk NORWICHRESEARCH PARK Centres of Excellence UK Science & Innovation Parks: norwich research park