page 1
page 2
page 3
page 4
page 5
page 6
page 7
page 8
page 9
page 10
page 11
page 12
page 13
page 14
page 15
page 16
page 17
page 18
page 19
page 20
page 21
page 22
page 23
page 24
page 25
page 26
page 27
page 28
page 29
page 30
page 31
page 32
page 33
page 34
page 35
page 36
page 37
page 38
page 39
page 40
page 41
page 42
page 43
page 44
page 45
page 46
page 47
page 48
page 49
page 50
page 51
page 52
page 53
page 54
page 55
page 56
page 57
page 58
page 59
page 60
page 61
page 62
page 63
page 64
page 65
page 66
page 67
page 68
page 69
page 70
page 71
page 72
page 73
page 74
page 75
page 76
page 77
page 78
page 79
page 80
page 81
page 82
page 83
page 84

opportunities and dangers that can be observed with regard to Olympic athletes. Concerning the spectators at Olympic Games we can frequently recognise a considerable lack of knowledge about Olympism. Questionable chauvinistic tendencies, similar to those observable outside Olympic sport, hooliganism, open cynicism against opposing teams, aggressive and biased behaviour of fans as well as a number of other similar excesses are showing their effects. Some sports are affected by these influences to a particularly large extent, requiring specific attention. Other sports still are in a position to represent successful counter- models. The changes in spectator behaviour clearly indicate that the spectators' actions can be influenced, that a lot depends on the organisers of sport themselves, thus making the development of spectator attitudes and behaviour a responsibility of the sports associations. This applies to the international associations in the same way as to the International Olympic Committee. ¦ Professor Dr. Helmut Digel has always had a close relationship with sport – a former track and field athlete, he also played handball in the German national league for SV Moor. He is now the Director of the Institute for Sport Science at the University of Tübingen, Germany. OLYMPIC REVIEW65 Respect for the referees is to be observed among large parts of the spectators in this sport. The athletics spectators, however, are characterised by a unique internationality. Chauvinism and hooliganism are totally alien to this sport. This becomes impressively evident at the Olympic athletics competitions. Spectators from 204 nations are present on each day of the athletics events, and in each competition the athletes' performances are the focus of attention and interest. This shows that Olympic Games are something very special also from the spectators' perspectives. Olympic spectators are one facet of Olympic culture. Besides the athletes, the spectators are doubtlessly a significant cornerstone of the modern Olympic movement featuring the same

66OLYMPIC REVIEW At the Vancouver Games, 20 teams – ten each for men and women – will compete in the 6,000- capacity Vancouver Olympic Centre. A game of curling consists of ten ' ends' and is played between two teams of four players each. The aim is to score as many points as possible, with each team alternating turns in sliding a 19.1kg stone – made of a rare granite quarried in Scotland – towards a series of concentric circles. During an end each team must deliver eight stones – two stones per person. The order of players must be presented to officials prior to the game. The first player is known as the " lead". The " second", then the " third" follow before the " skip" – effectively the team captain – concludes the end. After each player's releases, fellow team members equipped with brooms and special curling shoes sweep the ' pebbled' ice to control the stone's direction, known as its " curl", and its speed. Scores are determined when each end is concluded and all 16 stones have been delivered. The team with the most points at the conclusion of ten ends is the winner. Canada, as hosts of the 2010 Games, gain automatic entry for both a men's and women's team. The remaining 18 teams gain entry thanks to qualifying points won in the World Curling Championships from 2007- 2009. BelowPlayers sweep the ice to control their team- mate's stone during an ' end' FORMAT