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122TEACHING VALUES SECTION 4 THE FIVE EDUCATIONAL VALUES OF OLYMPISM O ne hundred years ago, Pierre de Coubertin complained about the emphasis on intellectualism and compartmentalisation in French schools. He would have understood and applauded the theory of multiple intelligences. " THE INTELLIGENCES ARE LANGUAGES THAT ALL PEOPLE SPEAK AND ARE INFLUENCED, IN PART, BY THE CULTURE INTO WHICH ONE IS BORN. THEY ARE TOOLS FOR LEARNING, PROBLEM- SOLVING, AND CREATING THAT ALL HUMAN BEINGS USE." 25 Thus the theory of multiple intelligences, 26 also reinforces cross- cultural perspectives of human learning. SUGGESTED ACTIVITY Thinking About Balance – Work in small groups to complete a " Multiple Intelligences Chart" 27using the headings below. The first one, bodily- kinaestheticintelligence, has been completed for you. Then complete the sections for each of the following intelligences. Work in small groups; each group takes on one kind of intelligence. Verbal- Linguistic Intelligence The ability to think in words and to use language to express and appreciate complex meanings Logical- mathematical Intelligence Makes it possible to calculate, quantify, consider propositions and hypotheses, and carry out complex mathematical operations. Visual- Spatial Intelligence Instils the capacity to think in three-dimensional ways, perceive external and internal imagery, to recreate, transform or modify images and to navigate oneself and objects through space. Musical Intelligence Is evident in individuals who possess a sensitivity to pitch, melody, rhythm and tone. Interpersonal Intelligence Is the capacity to understand and interact effectively with others. Intrapersonal Intelligence Refers to the ability to construct an accurate perception of oneself and to use such knowledge in planning and directing one's own life. Naturalist Intelligence Consists of observing patterns in nature, identifying and classifying objects, and understanding natural and human- made systems. FOR DISCUSSION Which of these intelligences are most valued in your culture? Why? Which of these intelligences seem to be most valued in your education system? Why? Which of these intelligences best describes your talents and interests? What could you do to increase your knowledge and skills in the areas in which you have talent? One of the values of Olympism is to promote a " balance between body, will and mind", and to do this through active participation in sport and physical activities. How can bodily-kinaesthetic activities contribute to the development of motivation and of the other intelligences? MANYCULTURES, MANY LEARNERS, MANYINTELLIGENCES USE THIS ACTIVITY FOR OLDER LEARNERS TO INTRODUCE THE IDEA THAT THERE ARE MANY FORMS OF INTELLIGENCE, THAT INDIVIDUALS HAVE DIFFERENT INTELLIGENCE TALENTS, AND THEREFORE DIFFERENT WAYS OF LEARNING. SUCCESSFUL LEARNING IS INFLUENCED BY TALENT, CULTURE AND TEACHING METHODOLOGY. 25 Campbell, L., Campbell, B. and Dickenson, D. ( 1996). Teaching and Learning Through Multiple Intelligences, Second Edition. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, p. xv. 26 Gardner, H. ( 1983). Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. N. Y.: Basic Books. 27 Adapted from Campbell, L., Campbell, B. and Dickenson, D. ( 1996). Teaching and Learning Through Multiple Intelligences, Second Edition. FT # 5, January 2007 TYPE OF INTELLIGENCE TALENT Bodily- Kinaesthetic Intelligence Enables a person to manipulate objects and fine- tune physical skills. Necessary for survival. INDICATORS OF THIS TALENT • Explores the environment through touch and movement – manipulates. • Demonstrates good coordination, grace, and a sense of timing. • Learns through direct participation. • Enjoys concrete learning experiences: e. g., field trips, model building, role play, games. • Has well- developed small or gross motor skills. WHO HAS THIS TALENT? athletes dancers actors sewers carvers recreation specialists sculptors designers surgeons choreographers Add to this list. ACTIVITIES TO STIMULATE THIS TALENT • Learning by doing. • Role playing. • Creative dramatics. • Simulations. • Creative movement activities. • Content- specific movement activities. • Learning sequences through dance. • Manipulatives ( e. g. task cards, puzzles, etc.) • Games. • Daily physical education. • Classroom adventures. • Field trips. • Exercise breaks.

TEACHING VALUES AN OLYMPIC EDUCATION TOOLKIT PRESENTATION SLIDES........................................................................................... 124 OLYMPIC DAY OR WEEK IN THE SCHOOL OR COMMUNITY................. 126 OLYMPIC DAY/ WEEK CERTIFICATE................................................................... 127 CREATING A " SPIRIT OF OLYMPISM" CULTURE IN YOUR SCHOOL OR ORGANISATION............................................................ 128 " SPIRIT OF OLYMPISM" INFORMATION HANDOUT...................................... 129 LETTER FOR PARENTS............................................................................................. 130 ACTIVITY LEADER/ COACH COMMITMENT.................................................... 131 PARENTAL COMMITMENT..................................................................................... 132 PARTICIPANT COMMITMENT................................................................................ 133 " SPIRIT OF OLYMPISM" AWARD........................................................................... 134 AboveTanzania 1991: A " Culture and Education" Seminar and Sports Competition. IMPLEMENTATION TOOLS SECTION 5 IMPLEMENTATION TOOLS TEACHING VALUES123