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22TEACHING VALUES SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION TO OLYMPIC VALUES EDUCATION FOR COACHES, SPORT AND YOUTH CLUB LEADERS Jacques Rogge, President of the International Olympic Committee made the following statement about sport and the Olympic Movement: " The unique strength of the Olympic Movement lies in its capacity to enthuse a dream in successive young generations: The examples of the champions motivates young people. The dream to participate in the Games will lead them to sport. Through sport, they will benefit from an educational tool. Sport will help their bodies and minds Sport will teach them to respect the rules. Sport will teach them to respect their opponents. Sport will allow them to integrate with society, and develop social skills. Sport will give them an identity. Sport will bring them joy and pride. Sport will improve their health." 9 Most sports and youth club leaders would accept these statements, and would probably believe that fair play, respect for the rules, respect for opponents, positive social skills, and healthy behaviour are values that can be developed through active participation in sport and physical activity. However, these outcomes are not the result of participation in sport alone; these desirable behaviours have to be taught. Sometimes fierce competition and the pressure to win in both school and community sports can be a deterrent to the realisation of Olympic values like fair play. Nevertheless, coaches all over the world are in a unique position to teach the values of Olympism. One of the most effective ways for young athletes to learn about fair play, for example, is to provide an opportunity for them to discuss the implications and consequences of their behaviour. When coaches give their players an opportunity to explore value conflicts and to discuss their feelings, beliefs and behaviour, values education has begun. In older groups the discussion may focus on violence and substance abuse, while in younger groups the discussion may focus more on playing by the rules, equal opportunity and fair play. Stories and examples in this Toolkitcan be a basis for discussion. An Olympic values education initiative, which brings school and community clubs together in an integrated approach, provides a unified and consistent message to young people about appropriate values and behaviour. FOR EDUCATIONAL AUTHORITIES AND ADMINISTRATORS The events of the modern Olympic Games have broad international appeal and a world- wide television audience. They BelowNetherlands 1991: IOC member Anton Geesink starts an Olympic Day Run in the Netherlands. Dr. Geesink won a gold medal in judo at the Tokyo Olympic Games, 1964. Right Nagano 1998: A Japanese girl wearing an outfit embroidered with the Olympic rings and the Nagano mascots, the ' Snowlets'. The Snowlets ( Sukki, Nokki, Lekki and Tsukki) are four owls, a bird which represents " the wisdom of the woods" in many countries. began 100 years ago as a 19th century European educational reform project of Pierre de Coubertin. Today they are the " largest spatiotemporal concentration of attention in human history." 10 The general nature of the educational values of Olympism seems to act positively as a " transnational space"– a place where the symbols and ceremonies, values and principles of the Olympic Movement are worked out, worked through, adapted and re- invented within the context of local knowledge and local and national cultural traditions. 11MacAloon suggests that " there

TEACHING VALUES AN OLYMPIC EDUCATION TOOLKIT SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION TO OLYMPIC VALUES EDUCATION TEACHINGVALUES23 Below Nelson Mandela, the inspirational former President of the Republic of South Africa. is no such thing as ' the Olympic Games,' there are many thousands of Olympic Games." 12 What does this mean for you as authorities within your national education systems? Teaching Values: An Olympic Education Toolkitis designed to convert Olympic stories, traditions and history into curriculum- based learning activities. Children and youth learn best by being enthusiastically engaged. Learning activities based on the educational values of Olympism provide a useful context for locally produced interpretations, insights, representations and activities. These learnings seem to reaffirm the required learning outcomes of school- based curricula. South African teachers, for example, integrate the concept of ubuntu – an ancient sub- Saharan word meaning [ more or less] " I am what I am because of who we all are"– with the Olympic societal values of universality and humanity. 13 Therefore, exercises and stories based on Olympic themes provide a natural motivation for values- based teaching activities in a variety of subject areas. They will help young people to explore the traditions of their own national and cultural communities. They will support the goal of sport as well as the goal of education in schools to improve the moral and physical development of their participants and students. A programme based on the values of Olympism can help to transcend and also celebrate difference by focusing on the common aspirations that we all have for the well- being of our children. We want them to be physically active and healthy; we want them to play fair; we want them to respect others; and we want them to become the best that they can be. The activities in this Toolkitcan inspire imagination and hope by blending education with sport and culture in the service of peace. FOR TEACHERS AND INSTRUCTORS Inspiring the moral and physical development of children and youth through participation in sport and physical activity is the goal of the Olympic Movement. This goal, although based originally on Euro- American traditions, is also consistent with the active living goals of the World Health Organisation ( WHO) and UNESCO ( the United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organisation). These organisations are concerned about the growing problem of obesity in young people in economically developed countries – a problem compounded by the lack of physical activity and the increase in sedentary " NO ONE IS BORN HATING ANOTHER PERSON BECAUSE OF THE COLOUR OF HIS SKIN, OR HIS BACKGROUND, OR HIS RELIGION. PEOPLE MUST LEARN TO HATE, AND IF THEY CAN LEARN TO HATE, THEY CAN BE TAUGHT TO LOVE, FOR LOVE COMES MORE NATURALLY TO THE HUMAN HEART THAN ITS OPPOSITE."( NELSON MANDELA) 9 Rogge, J. ( 2001). Editorial: Towards greater universality. Olympic Review, August- September 2001. www. olympic. org/ upload/ news/ olympic_ review/ review_ 200219124038_ UK. pdf 10 MacAloon, J. ( 1996). Humanism as a political necessity? Reflections on the pathos of anthropological science in Olympic contexts. Quest, 48( 1), 67- 81, p. 75. 11 Binder, D. 2002. Olympic odyssey: Facilitating an International Olympic Education Project. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. Edmonton: University of Alberta, p. 203. With thanks to Noel Gough ( 2000) for the concept of " transnational spaces." 12 MacAloon, J. Ibid. p. 76. 13 Binder, 2000. Be a champion in life: An international teacher's handbook. Athens: Foundation of Olympic and