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TEACHING VALUES AN OLYMPIC EDUCATION TOOLKIT SECTION 2 CELEBRATING THE VALUES THROUGH SYMBOL AND CEREMONY TEACHINGVALUES27 OPENING CEREMONY ORDER OF EVENTS: Parade of Nations – Greece first, host city last, others in alphabetical order. Speeches by the President of the Organising Committee and the President of the International Olympic Committee. Head of State of the host country officially declares the Games " open." Olympic flag is raised as the Olympic anthem is played. Olympic torch is used to light the Olympic flame. Doves are released as a symbol of peace. Olympic oath is taken by an athlete and an official. Cultural entertainment is provided by the Organising Committee of the host city. AboveThe first Olympic Flag. This flag was prepared under Baron Pierre de Coubertin's orders, and was displayed during the Pan- Egyptian Games, Alexandria, Egypt in 1914. You can see the words " Alexandrie 5 Avril 1914" on the flag. Right Lillehammer 1994: Violinists in a sleigh, a Norwegian tradition, at the Opening Ceremony.

28TEACHINGVALUES SECTION 2 CELEBRATING THE VALUES THROUGH SYMBOL AND CEREMONY ATHLETES' OATH " IN THE NAME OF ALL COMPETITORS, I PROMISE THAT WE WILL TAKE PART IN THESE OLYMPIC GAMES, RESPECTING AND ABIDING BY THE RULES WHICH GOVERN THEM, IN THE TRUE SPIRIT OF SPORTSMANSHIP, COMMITTING OURSELVES TO A SPORT WITHOUT DOPING AND WITHOUT DRUGS, FOR THE GLORY OF SPORT AND THE HONOUR OF OUR TEAMS." During the Opening Ceremony, an athlete from the host country comes to the platform and reads the Oath on behalf of all athletes. Then an official or a judge reads a similar oath on behalf of the judges and officials. The Olympic oath was first used at the 1920 Olympic Games in Antwerp. CLOSING CEREMONY The Closing Ceremony signals the official end of the Olympic Games and is usually shorter and simpler than the Opening Ceremony. The sequence of events was formalised in 1956 ( see box, above right). THE MEDAL CEREMONY At the ancient Olympic Games, only the first place winners received awards – a simple wreath made from an olive tree branch that was cut with a gold- handled knife from a wild olive tree. The Greeks believed that the vitality of the sacred tree was transmitted to the recipient through the branch. At the modern Olympic Games, Olympic medals are presented to the first, second and third place athletes. A GOLD medal is presented for first place, SILVER for second and BRONZE for third. The host city is responsible for designing the medals within the guidelines set by the IOC. The national anthem of the first place winner is played as each medallist's national flag is raised. 2 Note: Athens presented olive wreaths to all medal winners, thus honouring the tradition of the ancient Olympic Games. AboveNagano 1998: Kenji Ogiwara ( JPN) taking the athlete's oath. Below Athens 2004: ( L- R) Hrysopiyi Devetzi ( GRE), Francoise Mbango Etone ( CMR), and Tatyana Lebedeva ( RUS) celebrate on the podium after the women's triple jump. 2 CLOSING CEREMONY ORDER OF EVENTS: Olympic athletes are not separated into national teams as they enter the stadium, to symbolise the unity and friendship of the Games. Three flags are raised to the national anthems – Greece, host country and next host country. Olympic flag passed to the Mayor of the next host city. President of the International Olympic Committee pronounces the Games closed: " I declare the Games of the ( current) Olympiad closed, and in accordance with tradition, I call upon the youth of the world to assemble four years from now at ( the site of the next Olympics), to celebrate with us there the Games of the ( next) Olympiad." Olympic flame is extinguished. Olympic flag is lowered as the Olympic anthem is played. Cultural entertainment by the Organising Committee of the host city.