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28TEACHINGVALUES SECTION 2 CELEBRATING THE VALUES THROUGH SYMBOL AND CEREMONY ATHLETES' OATH " IN THE NAME OF ALL COMPETITORS, I PROMISE THAT WE WILL TAKE PART IN THESE OLYMPIC GAMES, RESPECTING AND ABIDING BY THE RULES WHICH GOVERN THEM, IN THE TRUE SPIRIT OF SPORTSMANSHIP, COMMITTING OURSELVES TO A SPORT WITHOUT DOPING AND WITHOUT DRUGS, FOR THE GLORY OF SPORT AND THE HONOUR OF OUR TEAMS." During the Opening Ceremony, an athlete from the host country comes to the platform and reads the Oath on behalf of all athletes. Then an official or a judge reads a similar oath on behalf of the judges and officials. The Olympic oath was first used at the 1920 Olympic Games in Antwerp. CLOSING CEREMONY The Closing Ceremony signals the official end of the Olympic Games and is usually shorter and simpler than the Opening Ceremony. The sequence of events was formalised in 1956 ( see box, above right). THE MEDAL CEREMONY At the ancient Olympic Games, only the first place winners received awards – a simple wreath made from an olive tree branch that was cut with a gold- handled knife from a wild olive tree. The Greeks believed that the vitality of the sacred tree was transmitted to the recipient through the branch. At the modern Olympic Games, Olympic medals are presented to the first, second and third place athletes. A GOLD medal is presented for first place, SILVER for second and BRONZE for third. The host city is responsible for designing the medals within the guidelines set by the IOC. The national anthem of the first place winner is played as each medallist's national flag is raised. 2 Note: Athens presented olive wreaths to all medal winners, thus honouring the tradition of the ancient Olympic Games. AboveNagano 1998: Kenji Ogiwara ( JPN) taking the athlete's oath. Below Athens 2004: ( L- R) Hrysopiyi Devetzi ( GRE), Francoise Mbango Etone ( CMR), and Tatyana Lebedeva ( RUS) celebrate on the podium after the women's triple jump. 2 CLOSING CEREMONY ORDER OF EVENTS: Olympic athletes are not separated into national teams as they enter the stadium, to symbolise the unity and friendship of the Games. Three flags are raised to the national anthems – Greece, host country and next host country. Olympic flag passed to the Mayor of the next host city. President of the International Olympic Committee pronounces the Games closed: " I declare the Games of the ( current) Olympiad closed, and in accordance with tradition, I call upon the youth of the world to assemble four years from now at ( the site of the next Olympics), to celebrate with us there the Games of the ( next) Olympiad." Olympic flame is extinguished. Olympic flag is lowered as the Olympic anthem is played. Cultural entertainment by the Organising Committee of the host city.

TEACHING VALUES29 LINKEDBYTHERINGS: THEOLYMPIC SYMBOL TEACHING VALUES AN OLYMPIC EDUCATION TOOLKIT SECTION 2 CELEBRATING THE VALUES THROUGH SYMBOL AND CEREMONY Above The Olympic Rings. BEFORE YOU READ – QUESTIONS TO ASK Have you seen the Olympic Rings before? Where? What do they look like? What do you think they mean? USE THIS ACTIVITY TO INTRODUCE THE IDEA OF SYMBOLS. USE THE OLYMPIC SYMBOL AS A WAY OF INTRODUCING THE VALUES OF THE OLYMPIC MOVEMENT. READING Look at the five rings. They are joined together like a chain. You will see them everywhere on TV during an Olympic Games. These five rings are the symbol of the Olympic Games in all of the world. The colours of the top three rings are blue, black and red ( going from the left- hand side to the right- hand side). The bottom rings are yellow and green. One of these colours is found in the flag of every country in the world. Some people say that the five rings represent friendship among the people on the five large continents of the world. What do you say? FOR DISCUSSION Pierre de Coubertin, the founder of the Olympic Games designed this symbol 100 years ago. Do you think it is a good symbol for the Olympic Games? Why or why not? Symbols and colours mean different things in different cultures. What does BLACK mean ( symbolise)? What does WHITE mean? What does RED mean? • in an Asian culture • in a European culture • in an African culture