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TEACHING VALUES AN OLYMPIC EDUCATION TOOLKIT READING Cheating and Punishment in Ancient Olympia How would you punish a cheater in a sporting event in your community? The Ancient Greeks had a very unusual way of punishing athletes who cheated. They had to pay for a statue that had their names and their families' names on it. Everybody walked past these statues on their way to the stadium. How embarrassing! The ancient Olympic Games of Greece were organised with many rules and rituals – just like our Games. They were sacred to the Greek god Zeus. Athletes, their fathers and brothers, and officials promised to obey the rules at a ceremony in front of the temple of Zeus before the Games began. However, there were sometimes cheaters. As a penalty for cheating the athlete and his city had to pay a large fine. These fines were used to build small statues of Zeus called " Zanes." For hundreds of years other athletes walked past these statues as they marched into the stadium. The statues were a good reminder of the consequences of cheating. Some of the bases of these statues can be seen today at ancient Olympia. The names of the cheaters are still there for everybody to see – 3,000 years later. FOR DISCUSSION What kind of actions break the rules in Olympic sports competitions. What happens to the people who break the rules? Describe a ceremony in your culture or tradition in which people make promises or oaths. Why do people make promises like this? Have you ever made a promise to someone? Did you keep your promise? How did you feel about keeping or breaking your promise? Why did you feel this way? If you cheated during a sports competition, would you like your school or community to put your name on a statue that would stand in the front of the school? Why or why not? How would your parents feel? What are appropriate punishments for your classmates if they cheat? Do you think this is an effective ' consequence' for cheating? What is the punishment for cheaters in sports today? Do these punishments prevent people from cheating? Why or why not? What measures would you suggest in order to prevent cheating and violence in a sports competition? AboveCheaters in the ancient Olympic Games were punished by having to pay for a small statue of Zeus, bearing their name. MAKINGPROMISES: THEOLYMPICOATHS SECTION 2 CELEBRATING THE VALUES THROUGH SYMBOL AND CEREMONY TEACHINGVALUES33 THE ATHLETES' OATH IS A RITUAL DURING THE OPENING CEREMONY. USE THIS ACTIVITY TO EXPLORE THE PROBLEMS OF CHEATING IN SPORT IN BOTH ANCIENT AND MODERN TIMES. " IN THE NAME OF ALL COMPETITORS, I PROMISE THAT WE WILL TAKE PART IN THESE OLYMPIC GAMES, RESPECTING AND ABIDING BY THE RULES WHICH GOVERN THEM, COMMITTING OURSELVES TO A SPORT WITHOUT DOPING AND WITHOUT DRUGS, IN THE TRUE SPIRIT OF SPORTSMANSHIP, FOR THE GLORY OF SPORT AND THE HONOUR OF OUR TEAMS." ( MODERN OLYMPIC OATH, OLYMPIC CHARTER, 2003)

34TEACHING VALUES SECTION 2 CELEBRATING THE VALUES THROUGH SYMBOL AND CEREMONY C itius, Altius, Fortiusare Latin words. They mean " faster, higher, stronger". In many Olympic sports, the athlete that is the fastest, the highest or the strongest wins the gold medal. There are some Olympic sports that use a judging system to decide who wins the gold medal. Gymnastics, diving and figure skating are three examples. These sports are judged by a panel of judges. They look for things like spectacular moves, body control, artistic style and difficulty of movements or combinations of movements. FOR DISCUSSION Can judges or officials cheat? How? Why would they cheat? What are the consequences of their cheating? " THE MOST IMPORTANT THING IN THE OLYMPIC GAMES IS NOT TO WIN BUT TO TAKE PART, JUST AS THE MOST IMPORTANT THING IN LIFE IS NOT THE TRIUMPH BUT THE STRUGGLE. THE ESSENTIAL THING IS NOT TO HAVE CONQUERED BUT TO HAVE FOUGHT WELL." FOR DISCUSSION This message appears on the scoreboard at every Olympic Games. Explain what you think it means in your own words. Do you agree with this message? Why or why not? Not all athletes or their coaches agree with this message. They will cheat in order to win. What are some of the ways that athletes cheat? Why do they cheat? How does cheating harm other athletes? How does cheating harm the athlete who has cheated? TopAtlanta 1996: Miroslav Simek and Jiri Rohan ( CZE) in the Canoe/ Kayak Slalom. AboveAthens 2004: Rhythmic gymnasts in training. RightMoscow 1980: Men's Gymnastics, Rings Final. Gold medallist Alexander Dityatin ( URS) shows the strength required in this discipline. FASTER, HIGHER STRONGER MOTTOS AND MESSAGES HIGHLIGHT IMPORTANT VALUES. USE THE OLYMPIC MOTTO AND MESSAGE AS MODELS FOR DEVELOPING OTHER MOTTOS OR SAYINGS TO REPRESENT THE OLYMPIC VALUES.