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38TEACHING VALUES SECTION 2 CELEBRATING THE VALUES THROUGH SYMBOL AND CEREMONY READING The Olympic Truce In ancient times, a truce was declared before every Olympic Games. This truce allowed athletes and spectators to travel in safety. Today, the Olympic Truce Foundation and the International Olympic Committee asks people who are fighting to stop fighting while athletes from the entire family of nations meet under the flame of the Olympic torch. This action is supported by the United Nations. The Athens Games in 2004 promoted the truce and its values around the world during the 2004 Olympic Torch Relay. OTHER SYMBOLS OF PEACE The five Olympic rings symbolise a chain that links all of the continents of the world. During a Games, the flags of all the participating nations fly in the Olympic stadium. Doves, ancient symbols of peace, are released during the ceremonies to bring their message of peace to the nations of the world. Ever since 1936, an Olympic torch, ignited at the site of the ancient Games in Olympia, has been passed from person to person in a national or international Olympic Torch Relay. The Olympic flame represents the spirit of friendship. An Olympic Village provides housing for most athletes, their coaches and personnel. In the Olympic Village athletes sleep, eat, shop and have fun together. They become a family. During the Closing Ceremony, all of the athletes enter the stadium together, showing the unity of sport under the Olympic flag. FOR DISCUSSION Interpret the " truce" symbol above. What birds represent peace in your culture? What other symbols of peace exist in your cultural tradition? What kinds of behaviour cause conflict among people in your school or community? What actions are taken to reduce the conflict? What actions do you think could be taken? Explain your suggestions. " PEACEMAKING REQUIRES TOOLS THAT CAN GIVE THE PARTIES OPPORTUNITIES TO STEP BACK FROM THE FRAY. WHILE LIMITED IN DURATION AND SCOPE, THE OLYMPIC TRUCE CAN OFFER A NEUTRAL POINT OF CONSENSUS, A WINDOW OF TIME TO OPEN A DIALOGUE, A PAUSE TO PROVIDE RELIEF TO A SUFFER-ING POPULATION." ( KOFI A. ANNAN. FORMER SECRETARY- GENERAL OF THE UNITED NATIONS) 5 SYMBOLSOFPEACE EXPLORE SYMBOLS THAT PROMOTE THE OLYMPIC VALUES OF INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND UNITY. Left The symbol of the Olympic Truce Foundation, Athens, Greece. A dove with an olive branch in its mouth is a symbol of peace. Below Sarajevo 1984: Opening Ceremony. During a terrible civil war in the former Yugoslavia, this Olympic Stadium was badly damaged, and converted into a cemetery. This photo reminds us that it is not easy to sustain the Olympic values of peace and harmony. 5 Annan, K. ( 2003). " United Nations and Olympic Truce." Athens: International Olympic Truce Centre and United Nations Information Centre. p. 5.

TEACHING VALUES AN OLYMPIC EDUCATION TOOLKIT READING THE IMAGE6 Context: When the city of Rome, Italy, received the right to host the 1960 Olympic Games, it made a decision to highlight the rich history of the city. The poster shows the upper part of a column, known as a capital, decorated with human figures. At the top a she- wolf can be seen, feeding two infants. Text, dates and the Olympic rings complete the picture. The Wolf feeding Romulus and Remus: The she- wolf and twins represent the popular myth of the founding of Rome. Legend has it that the twin boys were the offspring of the Roman god of war, Mars, and the nephews of the King of Alba Longa. The king, fearing a challenge for the crown, set the twins afloat in a basket on the Tiber River, which later floated ashore and was found by a female wolf. Nursed by the she- wolf, the twins were later adopted by a shepherd and named Romulus and Remus. According to tradition, the adult Romulus and Remus founded the city of Roma in 753 BCE, on the site where they were discovered by the she- wolf. Later, in a quarrel for leadership, Romulus killed Remus and became sole ruler of Rome. The image of the she- wolf and the twins is based on the sculpture of the Lupa Capitolina ( Capito'line Wolf), dating from the 6th Century BC. The original sculpture had been damaged during Antiquity and was restored during the Renaissance. The twins we see today date from this period. The sculpture has become a well- known symbol of the city of Rome. The Column: the Athlete and the Crowd: The scene represented is of an athlete crowning himself with his right hand while holding a palm leaf of victory in his left. While he himself is nude, those surrounding him are toga- clad. Several other athletes are also wearing crowns, a symbol of victory. The Text: The text on the poster uses the writing of ancient Rome for its numbers ( Roman numerals) rather than Arabic numbers ( which are the way that numbers are now written in Euro- Western writing). These " Roman numerals" reinforce the " antique" identity of the Rome 1960 Games. The text reads " Games of the XVII Olympiad, Roma, 25. VIII – 11. IX"; and, on the capital," Roma MCMLX". FOR DISCUSSION What Olympic values are represented in this poster? LeftRome 1960: The Official Poster of the 1960 Summer Games. REPRESENTINGTHESPIRIT: OLYMPICGAMES' POSTERS SECTION 2 CELEBRATING THE VALUES THROUGH SYMBOL AND CEREMONY TEACHINGVALUES39 POSTERS CONVEY MESSAGES THROUGH WORDS, PICTURES AND/ OR SYMBOLS. USE A STUDY OF OLYMPIC POSTERS TO INTRODUCE LEARNERS TO DIFFERENT WAYS TO REPRESENT LOCAL HERITAGE AND THE VALUES OF THE OLYMPIC MOVEMENT. 6 Olympic Museum and Studies Centre. ( 2003). " Olympic Games Posters." Online: http:// multimedia. olympic. org/ pdf/ en_ report_ 776. pdf. Sourced July 25, 2006.