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TEACHING VALUES AN OLYMPIC EDUCATION TOOLKIT READING THE IMAGE6 Context: When the city of Rome, Italy, received the right to host the 1960 Olympic Games, it made a decision to highlight the rich history of the city. The poster shows the upper part of a column, known as a capital, decorated with human figures. At the top a she- wolf can be seen, feeding two infants. Text, dates and the Olympic rings complete the picture. The Wolf feeding Romulus and Remus: The she- wolf and twins represent the popular myth of the founding of Rome. Legend has it that the twin boys were the offspring of the Roman god of war, Mars, and the nephews of the King of Alba Longa. The king, fearing a challenge for the crown, set the twins afloat in a basket on the Tiber River, which later floated ashore and was found by a female wolf. Nursed by the she- wolf, the twins were later adopted by a shepherd and named Romulus and Remus. According to tradition, the adult Romulus and Remus founded the city of Roma in 753 BCE, on the site where they were discovered by the she- wolf. Later, in a quarrel for leadership, Romulus killed Remus and became sole ruler of Rome. The image of the she- wolf and the twins is based on the sculpture of the Lupa Capitolina ( Capito'line Wolf), dating from the 6th Century BC. The original sculpture had been damaged during Antiquity and was restored during the Renaissance. The twins we see today date from this period. The sculpture has become a well- known symbol of the city of Rome. The Column: the Athlete and the Crowd: The scene represented is of an athlete crowning himself with his right hand while holding a palm leaf of victory in his left. While he himself is nude, those surrounding him are toga- clad. Several other athletes are also wearing crowns, a symbol of victory. The Text: The text on the poster uses the writing of ancient Rome for its numbers ( Roman numerals) rather than Arabic numbers ( which are the way that numbers are now written in Euro- Western writing). These " Roman numerals" reinforce the " antique" identity of the Rome 1960 Games. The text reads " Games of the XVII Olympiad, Roma, 25. VIII – 11. IX"; and, on the capital," Roma MCMLX". FOR DISCUSSION What Olympic values are represented in this poster? LeftRome 1960: The Official Poster of the 1960 Summer Games. REPRESENTINGTHESPIRIT: OLYMPICGAMES' POSTERS SECTION 2 CELEBRATING THE VALUES THROUGH SYMBOL AND CEREMONY TEACHINGVALUES39 POSTERS CONVEY MESSAGES THROUGH WORDS, PICTURES AND/ OR SYMBOLS. USE A STUDY OF OLYMPIC POSTERS TO INTRODUCE LEARNERS TO DIFFERENT WAYS TO REPRESENT LOCAL HERITAGE AND THE VALUES OF THE OLYMPIC MOVEMENT. 6 Olympic Museum and Studies Centre. ( 2003). " Olympic Games Posters." Online: http:// multimedia. olympic. org/ pdf/ en_ report_ 776. pdf. Sourced July 25, 2006.

40TEACHING VALUES SECTION 2 CELEBRATING THE VALUES THROUGH SYMBOL AND CEREMONY ACTIVITYSHEET Write the numbers from 1 to 10 in Roman numerals. Interpret the numbers from the poster of the 1967 Games in Rome. Write these dates in the number symbols from other language traditions. Analyse the Calgary 1988 Winter Games poster below. Identify the elements of Olympic symbols/ values and local heritage. Can you find the maple leaf ( symbol of Canada), a snowflake, the " Cs" for Calgary, and cowboy boots? Canada has two national languages. What are they? Can you see the Rocky Mountains behind the city skyline? Imagine the Olympic Games were to be hosted by your community ( or a nearby city). Design an Olympic Games poster. What elements would you find it important to include and why? Note: All Olympic posters feature the rings and aspects of importance to the host city. CHECKLIST ACTIVITY 1 ACTIVITY 2 ACTIVITY 3 123