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TEACHING VALUES AN OLYMPIC EDUCATION TOOLKIT SECTION 3 SHARING THE VALUES THROUGH SPORT AND THE OLYMPIC GAMES TEACHING VALUES47 THE OLYMPIC WORLD THROUGH THE WORK OF THE NATIONAL OLYMPIC COMMITTEES IN EACH OF THESE COUNTRIES, THE UNIVERSALITY OF SPORT AND THE VALUES OF OLYMPISM ARE AFFIRMED. AFRICA Algeria ( ALG) Angola ( ANG) Benin ( BEN) Botswana ( BOT) Burkina Faso ( BUR) Burundi ( BDI) Cameroon ( CMR) Cape Verde ( CPV) Central African Republic ( CAF) Chad ( CHA) Comoros ( COM) Congo ( CGO) Côte d'Ivoire ( CIV) Democratic Republic of the Congo ( COD) Djibouti ( DJI) Egypt ( EGY) Equatorial Guinea ( GEQ) Eritrea ( ERI) Ethiopia ( ETH) Gabon ( GAB) Gambia ( GAM) Ghana ( GHA) Guinea ( GUI) Guinea- Bissau ( GBS) Kenya ( KEN) Lesotho ( LES) Liberia ( LBR) Libyan Arab Jamahiriya ( LBA) Madagascar ( MAD) Malawi ( MAW) Mali ( MLI) Mauritania ( MTN) Mauritius ( MRI) Morocco ( MAR) Mozambique ( MOZ) Namibia ( NAM) Niger ( NIG) Nigeria ( NGR) Rwanda ( RWA) Sao Tome and Principe ( STP) Senegal ( SEN) Seychelles ( SEY) Sierra Leone ( SLE) Somalia ( SOM) South Africa ( RSA) Sudan ( SUD) Swaziland ( SWZ) Togo ( TOG) Tunisia ( TUN) Uganda ( UGA) United Republic of Tanzania ( TAN) Zambia ( ZAM) Zimbabwe ( ZIM) AMERICA Antigua and Barbuda ( ANT) Argentina ( ARG) Aruba ( ARU) Bahamas ( BAH) Barbados ( BAR) Belize ( BIZ) Bermuda ( BER) Bolivia ( BOL) Brazil ( BRA) British Virgin Islands ( IVB) Canada ( CAN) Cayman Islands ( CAY) Chile ( CHI) Colombia ( COL) Costa Rica ( CRC) Cuba ( CUB) Dominica ( DMA) Dominican Republic ( DOM) Ecuador ( ECU) El Salvador ( ESA) Grenada ( GRN) Guatemala ( GUA) Guyana ( GUY) Haiti ( HAI) Honduras ( HON) Jamaica ( JAM) Mexico ( MEX) Netherlands Antilles ( AHO) Nicaragua ( NCA) Panama ( PAN) Paraguay ( PAR) Peru ( PER) Puerto Rico ( PUR) Saint Kitts and Nevis ( SKN) Saint Lucia ( LCA) Saint Vincent and the Grenadines ( VIN) Suriname ( SUR) Trinidad and Tobago ( TRI) United States of America ( USA) Uruguay ( URU) Venezuela ( VEN) Virgin Islands ( ISV) ASIA Afghanistan ( AFG) Bahrain ( BRN) Bangladesh ( BAN) Bhutan ( BHU) Brunei Darussalam ( BRU) Cambodia ( CAM) Chinese Taipei ( TPE) Democratic People's Republic of Korea ( PRK) Hong- Kong ( HKG) India ( IND) Indonesia ( INA) Iraq ( IRQ) Islamic Republic of Iran ( IRI) Japan ( JPN) Jordan ( JOR) Kazakhstan ( KAZ) Korea ( KOR) Kuwait ( KUW) Kyrgyzstan ( KGZ) Lao People's Democratic Republic ( LAO) Lebanon ( LIB) Malaysia ( MAS) Maldives ( MDV) Mongolia ( MGL) Myanmar ( MYA) Nepal ( NEP) Oman ( OMA) Pakistan ( PAK) Palestine ( PLE) People's Republic of China ( CHN) Philippines ( PHI) Qatar ( QAT) Saudi Arabia ( KSA) Singapore ( SIN) Sri Lanka ( SRI) Syrian Arab Republic ( SYR) Tajikistan ( TJK) Thailand ( THA) Timor- Leste ( TLS) Turkmenistan ( TKM) United Arab Emirates ( UAE) Uzbekistan ( UZB) Vietnam ( VIE) Yemen ( YEM) EUROPE Albania ( ALB) Andorra ( AND) Armenia ( ARM) Austria ( AUT) Azerbaijan ( AZE) Belarus ( BLR) Belgium ( BEL) Bosnia and Herzegovina ( BIH) Bulgaria ( BUL) Croatia ( CRO) Cyprus ( CYP) Czech Republic ( CZE) Denmark ( DEN) Estonia ( EST) Finland ( FIN) Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia ( MKD) France ( FRA) Georgia ( GEO) Germany ( GER) Great Britain ( GBR) Greece ( GRE) Hungary ( HUN) Iceland ( ISL) Ireland ( IRL) Israel ( ISR) Italy ( ITA) Latvia ( LAT) Liechtenstein ( LIE) Lithuania ( LTU) Luxembourg ( LUX) Malta ( MLT) Monaco ( MON) Montenegro ( MNE) Netherlands ( NED) Norway ( NOR) Poland ( POL) Portugal ( POR) Republic of Moldova ( MDA) Romania ( ROU) Russian Federation ( RUS) San Marino ( SMR) Serbia ( SRB) Slovakia ( SVK) Slovenia ( SLO) Spain ( ESP) Sweden ( SWE) Switzerland ( SWZ) Turkey ( TUR) Ukraine ( UKR) OCEANIA American Samoa ( ASA) Australia ( AUS) Cook Islands ( COK) Federated States of Micronesia ( FSM) Fiji ( FIJ) Guam ( GUM) Kiribati ( KIR) Marshall Islands ( MHL) Nauru ( NRU) New Zealand ( NZL) Palau ( PLW) Papua New Guinea ( PNG) Samoa ( SAM) Solomon Islands ( SOL) Tonga ( TGA) Tuvalu ( TUV) Vanuatu ( VAN)

48TEACHING VALUES SECTION 3 SHARING THE VALUES THROUGH SPORT AND THE OLYMPIC GAMES There are two kinds of Olympic Games: Summer Games and Winter Games. Winter Games include the sports that take place on snow or ice. Each type of Games is held every four years. BEFORE YOU READ – QUESTIONS TO ASK What kinds of cities do you think could host a Summer Olympic Games? A Winter Games? Could a city near you be a host? READING In countries in the northern part of the world, people competed in sports on snow and ice. They wanted these sports included in the Olympic programme. In 1924 a winter sports week was held in Chamonix, France. The International Olympic Committee supported this event. It was a very big success and the IOC then agreed to name the Chamonix competitions as the first Winter Games. Since then the Winter Games have taken place every four years – at first in the same year as the Summer Games. Now there is a two- year difference between the Summer and Winter Games. Below Chamonix 1924: An 11- year- old Sonja Henie ( NOR) shows the poise and grace that would see her win three figure skating gold medals at future Olympic Winter Games. Bottom Chamonix 1924: Ski jumping at the first ever Olympic Winter Games. HOST CITIES OF THE OLYMPIC GAMES SUMMER GAMES DateCity 1896Athens, Greece 1900Paris, France 1904Saint Louis, USA 1908London, Great Britain 1912Stockholm, Sweden 1916* not held because of war 1920Antwerp, Belgium 1924Paris, France 1928Amsterdam, Netherlands 1932Los Angeles, USA 1936Berlin, Germany 1940* not held because of war 1944* not held because of war 1948London, Great Britain 1952Helsinki, Finland 1956Melbourne, Australia and Stockholm, Sweden ( equestrian events) 1960Rome, Italy 1964Tokyo, Japan 1968Mexico City, Mexico 1972Munich, Germany 1976Montreal, Canada 1980Moscow, USSR 1984Los Angeles, USA 1988Seoul, Korea 1992Barcelona, Spain 1996Atlanta, USA 2000Sydney, Australia 2004Athens, Greece 2008Beijing, China 2012London, Great Britain HOST CITIES FOR THE OLYMPICGAMES AFTER A DETAILED EVALUATION OF THE CANDIDATE CITIES, THE INTERNATIONAL OLYMPIC COMMITTEE SESSION AWARDS A CITY THE RIGHT TO ORGANISE AN EDITION OF THE OLYMPIC GAMES OR THE OLYMPIC WINTER GAMES IN ITS COUNTRY. HOST CITIES OF THE OLYMPIC GAMES WINTER GAMES DateCity 1924Chamonix, France 1928Saint Moritz, Switzerland 1932Lake Placid, USA 1936Garmisch Partenkirchen, Germany 1948Saint Moritz, Switzerland 1952Oslo, Norway 1956Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy 1960Squaw Valley, USA 1964Innsbruck, Austria 1968Grenoble, France 1972Sapporo, Japan 1976Innsbruck, Austria 1980Lake Placid, USA 1984Sarajevo, Yugoslavia 1988Calgary, Canada 1992Albertville, France 1994Lillehammer, Norway 1998Nagano, Japan 2002Salt Lake City, USA 2006Turin, Italy 2010Vancouver, Canada 2014Sochi, Russia