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52TEACHING VALUES SECTION 3 SHARING THE VALUES THROUGH SPORT AND THE OLYMPIC GAMES F our years after the first Olympic Games of the modern era in Athens, women took part in their first Olympic Games, in Paris in 1900. Despite the opposition of Pierre de Coubertin, 22 women out of a total of 997 athletes competed in five sports: tennis, sailing, croquet, equestrian and golf. Since the 1970s female participation has greatly increased. Today nearly 40 per cent of the athletes who compete in an Olympic Games are women. The IOC has continually added women's events to the Olympic programme. Since 1991, all new sports wishing to be included on the Olympic programme must include women's events. " ANY FORM OF DISCRIMINATION WITH REGARD TO A COUNTRY OR A PERSON ON GROUNDS OF RACE, RELIGION, POLITICS, GENDER OR OTHERWISE IS INCOMPATIBLE WITH BELONGING TO THE OLYMPIC MOVEMENT." ( OLYMPIC CHARTER, 2004. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE # 5,) LeftSalt Lake City 2002:( L- R) Hayley Wickenheiser ( CAN) and her team- mates Geraldine Heaney and Colleen Sostorics celebrate their victory against the United States in the women's ice hockey final. 2 Adapted from International Olympic Committee Factsheet, " Women in the Olympic Movement," Updated, December 2005, p. 1. BREAKINGTHROUGH BARRIERS: WOMENINTHE OLYMPICGAMES2 SINCE THE FIRST OF THE MODERN OLYMPIC GAMES, IDEAS HAVE SLOWLY CHANGED ABOUT WOMEN AND SPORT. WOMEN IN MANY PLACES HAVE INSISTED ON THEIR RIGHTS TO PARTICIPATE IN SPORT AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. THESE ARE SOME GREAT STORIES ABOUT FEMALE OLYMPIC CHAMPIONS.

TEACHING VALUES AN OLYMPIC EDUCATION TOOLKIT SECTION 3 SHARING THE VALUES THROUGH SPORT AND THE OLYMPIC GAMES TEACHING VALUES53 YAEL ARAD – ISRAEL – JUDO When Yael Arad, 29, won a judo silver medal in the 1992 Olympics, she became the first Israeli to win an Olympic medal. In Israel, she trained with the coach of the men's team because she had trouble finding training partners. NAWAL EL MOUTAWAKEL – MOROCCO – HURDLES Nawal El Moutawakel was the first woman from Africa to win a gold medal. In the Los Angeles 1984 Olympic Games she stunned the world by winning the 400 metre hurdles. Her talent as a hurdler was recognised by the track coaches of Iowa State University where she went to study in 1983. It took her only a year to reach the top of the podium. She became a heroine in Morocco and since then she has been active in support of the development of sport among women in Morocco and around the world. She also lends her fame and motivation to a variety of humanitarian efforts. She is the founding member and president of the Moroccan Association of Sport and Development and sits as a member of the National Olympic Committee of Morocco. In 2006 she was one of eight women who carried in the Olympic flag during the opening ceremonies of the 2006 Turin Olympic Winter Games. Her legacy and leadership inspire women, not only in Africa, but around the world. TEGLA LOROUPE – KENYA – MARATHON Loroupe is a 4' 11"( 1m53) marathon runner who became the first African woman to win a world marathon. In 1994 she won the New York City marathon. Loroupe, 23, was encouraged to run in Kenya by her mother and sister, although her father disapproved. She competed in the 10,000m at the Atlanta Olympic Games in 1996 to give herself a rest from marathons. Although she did not win a medal her successes have inspired many women to become world- class runners in Kenya. GHADA CHOUA'A – SYRIA – HEPTATHLON Ghada Choua'a won the gold medal in the heptathlon at the 1996 Olympic Games in Atlanta. Her gold medal was the first ever won by Syria. She also won the heptathlon gold medal at the 1995 World Championships. Some people say that the woman who wins the heptathlon is the best all- round female athlete in the world. FATUMA ROBA – ETHIOPIA – MARATHON Fatuma Roba, a policewoman from Ethiopia, became the first African woman to win an Olympic marathon. At the 1996 Olympic Games in Atlanta, Roba finished the race with a time of two hours, twenty- six minutes and five seconds ( 2: 26: 05). She was a full two minutes faster than the second place finisher, Valentina Yegorova of Russia, who had won the 1992 gold medal. FOR DISCUSSION There are many reasons why it is hard for young women to become Olympic champions in a sport. Discuss some of these reasons. In the past, it was thought that women were not able to run the long distance of a marathon race. The Olympic Games did not have a marathon for women until 1984. Joan Benoit ( USA) became the world's first female gold medallist in the marathon. Today, women as well as men compete in marathon races. Why do you think people thought that women could not endure a marathon run? Does your community or country support the participation of women and girls in physical activity? Why or why not? Do you think girls should participate and compete in sport and physical activity? Why or why not? Interview a female athlete in your community. Why is sport important to her? What barriers has she had to overcome? How did she overcome these barriers? What special assistance did she need? 1Barcelona 1992: Yael Arad ( ISR) celebrates winning a silver medal in the women's judo. 2Los Angeles 1984: Nawal El Moutawakel ( MAR) became the first African woman to win an Olympic gold medal. 3Sydney 2000: Marathoner Tegla Loroupe ( KEN) competed in the 10,000m, inspiring many female runners in Kenya. 4Atlanta 1996: Ghada Choua'a ( SYR) on her way to winning Syria's first ever gold medal. 5Atlanta 1996: Fatima Roba ( ETH) won the women's marathon – the first female from Africa to do so. 1 2 3 4 5