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READING 1 – LOGOS, EMBLEMS, SYMBOLS The word " logo" means an emblem or a symbol that defines the identity of an Olympic Games host city and Organising Committee. It is used as the visual identifier of the event. Two examples from Olympic Games on two different continents are shown here. One was a Winter Games and one was a Summer Games. READING 2 – MASCOTS Often a host city for an Olympic Games will choose an animal that has special symbolism for the region as its mascot. Moscow, USSR, 1980 had a bear ( Misha); Sarajevo, Yugoslavia, 1984 had a wolf ( Vuchko); Calgary, Canada, 1988 had polar bears ( Hidy and Howdy). Sometimes the mascot is an animated or cartoon character. THINGS TO DO You have been assigned the task of designing a logo or emblem for the event that you are planning for your community. 1 Draw and explain your design. 2Study the designs of the logos and emblems of other Olympic Games. You have been assigned the task of designing a mascot for the event that you are planning for your community. 1 Draw and explain your choice of mascot. 2 Study the mascots of other Olympic Games. Research the symbolism of the mascot. Make a study of the transition of mascots from animals to cartoon animals to cartoon humanised figures. Lillehammer 1994 The emblem features the aurora borealis6 ( Northern lights), the five Olympic rings, snow crystals and the title " Lillehammer ' 94". It was inspired by contact with nature, the sky and snow. Mexico City 1968 The emblem combines the five Olympic rings and the year of the Games. It is drawn in the style of the patterns on pottery and tapestry of the Huichole Indians of Mexico. Turin 2006The mascots of the Games. " Neve"( left) is a gentle, kind and elegant snowball; " Gliz" is a lively, playful ice cube. They complement each other and personify the very essence of winter sports. They are the symbol of a young generation that is full of life and energy. Seoul 1988The mascot," Hodori", portrays the friendly side of a tiger, which is present in many Korean legends. DEFININGYOURIDENTITY LOGOSANDMASCOTS USE A STUDY OF LOGOS AND MASCOTS TO INTRODUCE LEARNERS TO THE WAY THAT DIFFERENT OLYMPIC CITIES USE MASCOTS, LOGOS AND OLYMPIC TORCH DESIGNS TO REPRESENT THE SPECIAL SYMBOLS AND TRADITIONS OF THEIR CULTURE AND CITY. THIS STUDY WILL ADD TO AN UNDERSTANDING OF CULTURAL DIFFERENCE. CR 6 The aurora borealis is a natural phenomenon that occurs in countries ( like Norway) of the far north and south. During the display the " northern lights" move in curtains of colour across the sky. They represent power, tension and dramatic spectacle. 62TEACHING VALUES SECTION 3 SHARING THE VALUES THROUGH SPORT AND THE OLYMPIC GAMES

TEACHING VALUES AN OLYMPIC EDUCATION TOOLKIT SECTION 3 SHARING THE VALUES THROUGH SPORT AND THE OLYMPIC GAMES TEACHING VALUES63 FOR DISCUSSION Identify the value conflict for the Olympic Movement in each of the following situations. [ The Olympic Movement] " survived the interruption of Games during two World Wars." In 1916,1940 and 1944 the Olympic Games were not held because of war in Europe. How is this in opposition to the values of the Olympic Movement? [ The Olympic Movement]" survived boycotts." What is a boycott? Investigate the reasons for the boycotts of the Olympic Games by certain nations, e. g. in Montreal 1976, Moscow 1980 and Los Angeles 1984. How would you feel if you were an athlete who was expected to win a medal at the Olympic Games, and because your country decided to boycott the Games, you could not participate? [ The Olympic Movement] " survived the tragedy in Munich." What happened at the 1972 Munich Olympic Games? What was the IOC's response? The consequence of this event is that the IOC and Organising Committees have to spend a lot of money and pay very close attention to the security of participants at an Olympic Games. Investigate the complex procedures for Olympic Games security. [ The Olympic Movement] " survived doping scandals." What is doping? What kinds of substances are illegal? Why are they illegal? Why is doping in opposition to the Olympic values? Why do athletes use illegal substances? Investigate the procedures used to test athletes for illegal substances. What are the penalties? [ The Olympic Movement] " survived its own corruption." In Salt Lake City prior to the 2002 Winter Games it was discovered that a number of IOC members had accepted favours in return for voting for Salt Lake City during the bidding process. An investigation by the IOC uncovered a number of examples of inappropriate behaviour by IOC members. A number of them resigned or were expelled. How was this behaviour by IOC members in opposition to the Olympic values? What problems or challenges will you have as you plan and organise your community event? Do you think there will be opposition? From whom? How will you handle this conflict? BelowSalt Lake City 2002: Military personnel inspect vehicles before allowing them to enter the athlete's village. This is just one of the many safety precautions that are now in place at the Olympic Games. SOLVINGYOUR PROBLEMSOLYMPIC CHALLENGES LIKE EVERY ORGANISATION, THE INTERNATIONAL OLYMPIC MOVEMENT HAS HAD ITS SHARE OF PROBLEMS. SOME OF THESE CHALLENGES ARISE BECAUSE OF THE OLYMPIC GAMES' PRESTIGE AND POPULARITY. THESE PROBLEMS SOMETIMES AFFECT THE CREDIBILITY OF THE ORGANISATION BECAUSE THEY INCLUDE ACTIONS THAT ARE IN OPPOSITION TO THE VALUES OF THE OLYMPIC MOVEMENT. USE THIS ACTIVITY AS A PLACE TO DISCUSS THE CHALLENGES THAT HAVE FACED THE OLYMPIC MOVEMENT IN ITS 100- YEAR HISTORY. " THE OLYMPIC MOVEMENT HAS SURVIVED MANY CRISES IN ITS MORE THAN 107 YEARS OF HISTORY: IT SURVIVED THE INTERRUPTION OF GAMES DURING TWO WORLD WARS; IT SUR-VIVED BOYCOTTS; IT SURVIVED THE TRAGEDY IN MUNICH; IT SURVIVED DOPING SCANDALS; IT SURVIVED ITS OWN CORRUPTION. EACH TIME THE IOC TOOK CORRECTIVE ACTION. WE SHOULD, HOWEVER, AVOID ANY COMPLACENCY." ( JACQUES ROGGE, PRESIDENT, INTERNATIONAL OLYMPIC COMMITTEE, 2004. OLYMPIC REVIEW)