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BACKGROUND INFORMATION 66TEACHING VALUES THE FOCUS OF THIS TOOLKITIS ON HOW TO TEACH THE EDUCATIONAL VALUES OF OLYMPISM. THIS SECTION OFFERS TEACHING ACTIVITIES IN EACH OF THE FIVE VALUE AREAS. EMBEDDED IN THESE ACTIVITIES ARE EDUCATIONAL STRATEGIES TO HELP YOUNG PEOPLE TO DEVELOP AND PRACTISE POSITIVE ATTITUDES AND TYPES OF BEHAVIOUR. Olympic Museum Lausanne, Switzerland: Museum Workshop for Children – Dressing up like the Ancient Greeks. Look at those hairstyles! SECTION 4 THE FIVE EDUCATIONAL VALUES OF OLYMPISM

" ATTACHING SENSE AND MEANING TO NEW LEARNING CAN OCCUR ONLY IF THE LEARNER HAS ADEQUATE TIME TO PROCESS AND REPROCESS IT. THIS CONTINUING REPROCESSING IS CALLED REHEARSAL AND IS A CRITICAL COMPONENT IN THE TRANSFERENCE OF INFORMATION FROM WORKING MEMORY TO LONG- TERM STORAGE... THERE IS ALMOST NO LONG- TERM RETENTION [ OF INFORMATION OR OF A SKILL] WITHOUT REHEARSAL." ( SOUSA, D. ( 2003). HOW THE GIFTED BRAIN LEARNS. THOUSAND OAKS, CA: CORWIN PRESS, INC., P. 27- 28.) TEACHING VALUES AN OLYMPIC EDUCATION TOOLKIT TEACHING VALUES67 I f behaviour like fair play, respect and striving for excellence are desirable, and are the heart of the Olympic spirit, then young people need opportunities to " rehearse" these types of behaviour. The activities in this section have been designed to provide opportunities for " rehearsal." Developed for learners of different age levels, they will also be useful in English as a Second Language ( ESL) programmes. Since reading levels vary among young people in different parts of the world, the activities have not been labelled for particular ages or grades. Teachers and instructors will know best how to use or adapt the learning materials. Educators may choose information or activities from the Toolkitto support or enrich their existing programmes. They may also choose to use the entire Toolkitas a course in Olympic education. Integrating the activities of the Toolkit across a variety of subject or topic areas offers a school or sports club the opportunity to culminate the programme in an " Olympic Day" celebration in which the whole school or community could participate.( For a description of how to plan an Olympic Day see Section Five, p. 126.) Greek ethical thought helps us to understand the philosophy that guides the modern Olympic Movement, and also to be able to draw parallels with the ethical teachings of other cultures. The Olympic Games, and other Greek festivals, featured not only athletic competitions, but also drama, poetry and music competitions. Each festival was dedicated to one of the great gods or goddesses of the Ancient Greek religion. For example, the festival at Olympia was dedicated to Zeus; the one at Delphi to Apollo; the one in Ephesus to Aphrodite. Through the festivals the Greeks reinforced their cultural identity and the principles of their ethical life. In their athletic competitions they celebrated the human body and the thrill of sports competition. In their epic and lyric poetry they expressed their emotions and idealised their heroes. In their drama the Greeks presented the ethical dilemmas of their lives. These dilemmas and problems are not so very different from the dilemmas and problems that people throughout the world experience today. With respect to teaching values, we can learn from the methods of the Ancient Greeks. Our experience in Olympic sport tells us that lists of rules and general principles will not ensure correct behaviour. The teaching methods in this Toolkithighlight storytelling, dialogue, drama, poetry, music and dance which were also important ways of communicating community values in the culture of classical Greece. Ancient Olympia: The archway leading to the stadium. SECTION 4 THE FIVE EDUCATIONAL VALUES OF OLYMPISM