" ATTACHING SENSE AND MEANING TO NEW LEARNING CAN OCCUR ONLY IF THE LEARNER HAS ADEQUATE TIME TO PROCESS AND REPROCESS IT. THIS CONTINUING REPROCESSING IS CALLED REHEARSAL AND IS A CRITICAL COMPONENT IN THE TRANSFERENCE OF INFORMATION FROM WORKING MEMORY TO LONG- TERM STORAGE... THERE IS ALMOST NO LONG- TERM RETENTION [ OF INFORMATION OR OF A SKILL] WITHOUT REHEARSAL." ( SOUSA, D. ( 2003). HOW THE GIFTED BRAIN LEARNS. THOUSAND OAKS, CA: CORWIN PRESS, INC., P. 27- 28.) TEACHING VALUES AN OLYMPIC EDUCATION TOOLKIT TEACHING VALUES67 I f behaviour like fair play, respect and striving for excellence are desirable, and are the heart of the Olympic spirit, then young people need opportunities to " rehearse" these types of behaviour. The activities in this section have been designed to provide opportunities for " rehearsal." Developed for learners of different age levels, they will also be useful in English as a Second Language ( ESL) programmes. Since reading levels vary among young people in different parts of the world, the activities have not been labelled for particular ages or grades. Teachers and instructors will know best how to use or adapt the learning materials. Educators may choose information or activities from the Toolkitto support or enrich their existing programmes. They may also choose to use the entire Toolkitas a course in Olympic education. Integrating the activities of the Toolkit across a variety of subject or topic areas offers a school or sports club the opportunity to culminate the programme in an " Olympic Day" celebration in which the whole school or community could participate.( For a description of how to plan an Olympic Day see Section Five, p. 126.) Greek ethical thought helps us to understand the philosophy that guides the modern Olympic Movement, and also to be able to draw parallels with the ethical teachings of other cultures. The Olympic Games, and other Greek festivals, featured not only athletic competitions, but also drama, poetry and music competitions. Each festival was dedicated to one of the great gods or goddesses of the Ancient Greek religion. For example, the festival at Olympia was dedicated to Zeus; the one at Delphi to Apollo; the one in Ephesus to Aphrodite. Through the festivals the Greeks reinforced their cultural identity and the principles of their ethical life. In their athletic competitions they celebrated the human body and the thrill of sports competition. In their epic and lyric poetry they expressed their emotions and idealised their heroes. In their drama the Greeks presented the ethical dilemmas of their lives. These dilemmas and problems are not so very different from the dilemmas and problems that people throughout the world experience today. With respect to teaching values, we can learn from the methods of the Ancient Greeks. Our experience in Olympic sport tells us that lists of rules and general principles will not ensure correct behaviour. The teaching methods in this Toolkithighlight storytelling, dialogue, drama, poetry, music and dance which were also important ways of communicating community values in the culture of classical Greece. Ancient Olympia: The archway leading to the stadium. SECTION 4 THE FIVE EDUCATIONAL VALUES OF OLYMPISM
68TEACHING VALUES SECTION 4 THE FIVE EDUCATIONAL VALUES OF OLYMPISM BEFORE YOU READ Principles are ideas, values, types of behaviour and ways of doing things that are important to a people or a culture. What values and types of behaviour are important to your family and your community? Write three of these values or types of behaviour, and then discuss your list with other people in a small group or with your class. Vocabulary: principles, philosophy, exalting, will, universal, ethical, human right, discrimination, mutual, fair play, solidarity, symbol, interlaced GROUP ACTIVITY Here are some of the main ideas from the Fundamental Principles. Write answers for the questions and then discuss. Olympism is a philosophy of life... What ideas or values are important in your philosophy of life? Pierre de Coubertin, the founder of the modern Olympic Games, said that participation in sport helps young people to develop a balance between body, will and mind. • How do you develop the abilities of your body? Why should you develop these abilities? • How do you develop the abilities of your mind? Why should you develop these abilities? • Developing your will means that you strive to do your best in spite of difficulties. How do Olympic athletes show that they have a strong will? Name some athletes, heroes or heroines in your country that have shown a strong will. Tell their stories. Other important words in Fundamental Principle # 1 are: joy, effort, good example and ethical principles. • Name some athletes that you know who have these qualities? How do they show these qualities? • Should athletes set a " good example" by their behaviour? Why or why not? The practice of sport is a human right. Every individual must have the possibility of practising sport, without discrimination of any kind... • What is a human right? Do you agree that sport is a human right? Why or why not? • In some places certain people are not allowed to or are not able to participate in sport. What kinds of barriers exist to participation? • What are some other human rights? Who decides whether these activities are human rights? • Write a charter of human rights for the people in your community, your club or your school. Mutual understanding and friendshipare two important ideas in Fundamental Principle # 4. In order to be friends with someone you have to understand them. • Can you be friends with people who are different from yourself? How do these friendships develop? • How does participating in sport help people to understand other people? • How and where do Olympic athletes develop an understanding of people from other countries? Athletes who show fair playfollow the rules of the sport. But the " spirit of fair play" means acting in ways that go beyond just following the rules. • How do athletes show the " spirit of fair play" in a sport or during a game? • How do you show fair play in your daily life? INTERPRETINGTHE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES USE THE EXERCISES IN THIS ACTIVITY TO HELP LEARNERS UNDERSTAND THE MEANING OF THE MAIN IDEAS IN THE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES. [ REFER TO " FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES," P. 12] BelowAthens 2004: Jade North ( AUS) ( left) congratulates Mariano Gonzalez ( ARG) after Argentina's victory during the 2004 Olympic football tournament.