TEACHING VALUES AN OLYMPIC EDUCATION TOOLKIT BEFORE YOU READ – QUESTIONS TO ASK What sports in your country had their beginnings in the early history of your country? Who played these sports? When did they play these sports? What equipment did they use? How were the winners picked? How were the winners rewarded? READING Running, jumping, throwing and wrestling are four activities that have always existed in every human society. Before being termed " sporting", certain movements had – and perhaps still have – a meaning that was linked to identity, ritual, war, politics or religion. Humans needing to defend themselves in the face of aggression from other humans or from animal predators made movements such as fleeing or fighting universal. They appear in every society and have developed into rites, games, rituals as well as sport. The need to be strong, and if possible, the strongest, in the face of the predator or the enemy has always been of greatest importance. Many means of ensuring victory have been developed, such as physical aids, weapons, plant- based stimulants and magic rituals. EXAMPLES OF TRADITIONAL SPORTS Nadaam – The Nadaam festival, or eriyn gurvan nadaam, is the biggest festival of the year for Mongolians. Usually occurring in July, it runs for three days in all parts of the country and highlights the greatest athletes in horse racing, archery, and wrestling, Mongolia's most popular sports. Women participate in all but the wrestling category. Capoeira – Capoeira is an Afro- Brazilian martial art invented by African slaves in Brazil centuries ago. It combines dance, acrobatics and music with fighting techniques. Players form a roda ( circle). Other participants stand on the edge of the circle and take turns playing instruments. Everyone sings and waits for a chance to jump into the roda. In a roda, cartwheels, handstands, head spins, hand- spins, hand- springs, jumps and flips are common moves. There is no scorekeeper, and once the game gets into a flow, the players go through a series of explosive dance floor moves. Unlike a sport such as boxing, capoeira does not focus on hurting or injuring an opponent. Instead capoeira is about mastering skills, making sure moves are precise and stylised, and experiencing the music in the roda. Sumo – Sumo is a Japanese style of wrestling and Japan's national sport. It originated in ancient times as a performance to entertain the Shinto gods. Many rituals with religious background are still followed today. The basic rules of sumo are simple: The wrestler who either first touches the floor with something else than his sole or leaves the ring before his opponent, loses. The fights themselves usually last only a few seconds and in rare cases up to one minute or longer. Most elite wrestlers are highly trained athletes and between 20 to 35 years old. Besides working out, the wrestlers eat large amounts of food and go to bed right after eating in order to gain mass. The wrestlers live in special sumo stables where the rules are very strict, especially for lower ranked wrestlers. Wushu– Wushu is a martial art from China – " wu" means war and " shu" means art. Hundreds of different practices have existed during its long history, but some of the many different movement sequences, as well as the fundamental principles of good health, combat and public demonstrations of one's skills and art, are common to them all. Polynesian Traditional Sports– Traditional sports activities that are still practised in Polynesia include spear throwing ( teka), canoe races, wrestling, boxing ( motora'a), archery and surfing. Information Online: http:// www. tahitiguide. com/@ en-us/ 3/ 52/ 605/ article. asp AboveMongolia 2005: Young Chinese Mongolian horsemen in a race during the Naadam festival on the grassland of Gegental Steppe in China's Inner Mongolia region. The champion horse and rider win a minivan, and the second place wins a motorcycle. ROOTS ANDRITES: THE CULTUREOFSPORT3 SECTION 4 THE FIVE EDUCATIONAL VALUES OF OLYMPISM TEACHING VALUES79 IN THIS ACTIVITY LEARNERS ARE INVITED TO LEAVE THE OLYMPIC STADIUM AND DISCOVER TRADITIONAL SPORTS FROM THE MANY DIFFERENT CULTURAL HERITAGES OF THE WORLD. MANY OF THESE SPORTS ARE STILL PRACTISED. 3 Adapted from Chevalley, A. and Bouverat, M. 2005. Finding the Roots of Sport: Origins, Rites, Identities. Lausanne: International Olympic Committee.
80TEACHING VALUES SECTION 4 THE FIVE EDUCATIONAL VALUES OF OLYMPISM ACTIVITYSHEET Learn more about a traditional sport of the world. Some examples are given on this and the previous page. Answer the following questions in your study: Where is the sport practised? What are the historical roots of the sport? What are the events or skills required in the sport? Who participates in the sport? What special equipment, technology or playing areas are required for the sport? What are the rewards for the winners? What special ceremonies or rituals accompany the sports competitions? What are the differences between the way the sport is played today and the way it was played in the past? Learn the moves and skills to compete in the sport you studied. Then put on a display of traditional sports with your fellow learners. CHECKLIST ACTIVITY 1 ACTIVITY 2 1 2 [ IOC] Left Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China's National Games 2005: Wushu – Women's free fight. Below Two sumo wrestlers battle for supremacy in Japan's national sport.