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TEACHING VALUES AN OLYMPIC EDUCATION TOOLKIT T ry out some of the sports of the ancient Olympic Games. Since there was also a Games for women and girls held a year after each official Olympic Games, girls are invited and encouraged to participate. RUNNING – FOOT RACES Ancient Greeks measured distance by stades. A stade was approximately 200m. In a race of 2 stades, runners ran one stade, turned around and ran back to the starting line. You try it by measuring out a distance about 50m. This is far enough for young people. The marathon is named after the site of a famous Greek battle. A soldier ran 42km from the battlefield to Athens to bring the news of victory. He died as he told his story. You try a marathon by organising a 1- 2 km run around your school or community. Prepare for your run by running shorter distances regularly. Remember that in a longer run you must pace yourself. Seek guidance from a coach before starting a running programme. Does your country or community have a special running event? You try it. JUMPING – LONG JUMP In Ancient Greece, athletes competed in a standing long jump using hand- held weights to help them increase their distance. You try it by holding a weight in each hand. Swing your arms as you jump onto a mat or sand pit. Compare the distance you can jump with different arm techniques and with and without weights. Does your country have a special jumping event? You try it. THROWING – SPEAR THROW AND DISCUS In Ancient Greece, spear ( javelin) and discus throwing were needed by warriors in battle. In fact, many of the sports came from skills needed by soldiers in war. Under the guidance of an adult, you can try a spear throw by using a javelin. Compare your throws using different body positions, throwing from a standing and from a running start. Use any ball, ring, large stone or discus for a discus throw. Use different throwing and standing positions and compare your results. Does your country have a traditional throwing skill? You try it – under the guidance of an adult. BelowAthens 2004: Mizuki Noguchi ( JAP) ( right) leads the pack during the women's marathon as they run past a statue depicting the ancient Greek soldier who ran 42km to deliver news of a victorious battle. ATHLETICSEVENTSIN ANCIENTGREECE: YOUTRYIT SECTION 4 THE FIVE EDUCATIONAL VALUES OF OLYMPISM TEACHING VALUES81 USE THIS ACTIVITY TO ENCOURAGE LEARNERS TO TRY OUT DIFFERENT SPORTS ACTIVITIES, AND TO PRESENT THE IDEA THAT DIFFERENT CULTURES HAVE DIFFERENT ATHLETIC AND SPORTS ACTIVITIES AND DIFFERENT ATHLETIC TRADITIONS.

82TEACHING VALUES SECTION 4 THE FIVE EDUCATIONAL VALUES OF OLYMPISM T raditionally, fair play was a sports- related concept that emphasised playing by the rules. Referees and officials interpreted and enforced the rules through penalties and punishments. Today fair play has a meaning beyond sport and beyond just following the rules. This " spirit of fair play" is hard to define, but is easy to identify through specific types of fair play behaviour ( e. g. shaking hands at the end of the game). The concept became so popular that almost every country has developed an equivalent in its own language. While fair play was originally grounded in the value BelowAthens 2004: A fair play flag is displayed before the Group F match between Germany and Mexico during the 2004 Olympic football tournament. B: FAIRPLAY FAIR PLAY IS A SPORTS CONCEPT, BUT IT IS APPLIED WORLDWIDE TODAY IN MANY DIFFERENT WAYS. LEARNING FAIR PLAY BEHAVIOUR IN SPORT CAN LEAD TO THE DEVELOPMENT AND REINFORCEMENT OF FAIR PLAY BEHAVIOUR IN THE COMMUNITY AND IN LIFE. FAIR PLAY IS NOT CAUGHT; IT HAS TO BE TAUGHT. " FAIR PLAY IS A HUMAN RIGHTS ISSUE. IT IS THROUGH EDUCATION THAT EACH AND EVERY ONE OF US… MAY ACQUIRE WIDER AWARENESS OF UNIVERSAL HUMAN RIGHTS" ( KOICHIRO MATSURA, DIRECTOR GENERAL OF UNESCO. HUMAN RIGHTS AND THE NEED TO KNOW. UNESCO, JANUARY 2001). systems of Euro- American culture, fair play has received global recognition as a basic principle of human rights. Fair play does not happen automatically when children and young people participate in team or group activities. In fact, research from many countries supports the concern that some competitive sports activities actually contribute to unfair behaviour – cheating, substance abuse and aggression. 4Fair play – in sport or in any other context – has to be taught, and because it is an idea that children seem to grasp readily, teaching fair play is a useful concept in a variety of educational contexts. 5 Children have a strong sense of what is fair. Therefore, fair play can be taught in primary classes as well as in higher age groups. The activities that follow reflect this wide range of application. 4 Bredemeier, B. J., Shields, David, L., Weiss, Maureen R., Cooper, Bruce A. B. ( 1986). The relationship of sport involvement with children's moral reasoning and aggression tendencies. Journal of Sport Psychology, 8( 4), 304- 318. 5 Bredemeier, B. J. & Shields, D. ( 1995). Character development and physical activity. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.