82TEACHING VALUES SECTION 4 THE FIVE EDUCATIONAL VALUES OF OLYMPISM T raditionally, fair play was a sports- related concept that emphasised playing by the rules. Referees and officials interpreted and enforced the rules through penalties and punishments. Today fair play has a meaning beyond sport and beyond just following the rules. This " spirit of fair play" is hard to define, but is easy to identify through specific types of fair play behaviour ( e. g. shaking hands at the end of the game). The concept became so popular that almost every country has developed an equivalent in its own language. While fair play was originally grounded in the value BelowAthens 2004: A fair play flag is displayed before the Group F match between Germany and Mexico during the 2004 Olympic football tournament. B: FAIRPLAY FAIR PLAY IS A SPORTS CONCEPT, BUT IT IS APPLIED WORLDWIDE TODAY IN MANY DIFFERENT WAYS. LEARNING FAIR PLAY BEHAVIOUR IN SPORT CAN LEAD TO THE DEVELOPMENT AND REINFORCEMENT OF FAIR PLAY BEHAVIOUR IN THE COMMUNITY AND IN LIFE. FAIR PLAY IS NOT CAUGHT; IT HAS TO BE TAUGHT. " FAIR PLAY IS A HUMAN RIGHTS ISSUE. IT IS THROUGH EDUCATION THAT EACH AND EVERY ONE OF US… MAY ACQUIRE WIDER AWARENESS OF UNIVERSAL HUMAN RIGHTS" ( KOICHIRO MATSURA, DIRECTOR GENERAL OF UNESCO. HUMAN RIGHTS AND THE NEED TO KNOW. UNESCO, JANUARY 2001). systems of Euro- American culture, fair play has received global recognition as a basic principle of human rights. Fair play does not happen automatically when children and young people participate in team or group activities. In fact, research from many countries supports the concern that some competitive sports activities actually contribute to unfair behaviour – cheating, substance abuse and aggression. 4Fair play – in sport or in any other context – has to be taught, and because it is an idea that children seem to grasp readily, teaching fair play is a useful concept in a variety of educational contexts. 5 Children have a strong sense of what is fair. Therefore, fair play can be taught in primary classes as well as in higher age groups. The activities that follow reflect this wide range of application. 4 Bredemeier, B. J., Shields, David, L., Weiss, Maureen R., Cooper, Bruce A. B. ( 1986). The relationship of sport involvement with children's moral reasoning and aggression tendencies. Journal of Sport Psychology, 8( 4), 304- 318. 5 Bredemeier, B. J. & Shields, D. ( 1995). Character development and physical activity. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
TEACHING VALUES AN OLYMPIC EDUCATION TOOLKIT BEFORE YOU READ Think about a time when someone did something for you that they did not have to do – when they went out of their way to help you. How did you feel? Why is an action like this called " fair play?" READING Fair Play on the Bobsled Run6 Eugenio Monti made Olympic fair play history in the town of Innsbruck, Austria, during the Winter Games of 1964. Monti of Italy was one of the world's best bobsledders. A bobsled is a fibreglass cocoon on runners that slides at 150km per hour down an icy track on a mountainside. It is built for either two or four riders. The job of the driver and the other riders is to try to keep the sled balanced and stable during their wild ride around the twisting corners of the track, and to cross the finish line in the fastest time. Monti had already won a bronze medal in the four- man bobsled. He really wanted to win an Olympic gold medal in the two-man bobsled. As he waited with his partner at the top of the bobsled run for his turn, he realised there was great confusion near the bobsled of his main rivals, Robin Dixon and Tony Nash of Great Britain. They had lost a bolt that held the runner to their sled. Without that bolt, they could not participate in the race. What was to be done? Without giving it any second thought, Monti lent the pair the bolt from his own sled. Nash and Dixon raced down the track to capture the gold medal. Monti had to settle for third place. For his act of generosity he was awarded a special fair play medal by UNESCO. Monti was determined to carry on with his dream of winning an Olympic gold medal. So, although he was 40 years of age, he trained again for the Winter Games of 1968. His skills and years of experience were finally rewarded. He won gold medals in both the two- man and the four- man bobsled races. FOR DISCUSSION Why do you think Monti lent the other team his bolt, when it could mean that he might lose the gold medal – his dream for years? Would everybody act this way? Why or why not? What seemed to be more important to Monti than winning? Bobsledding is one of those sports in which the quality of your equipment is very important to your chances of winning a medal. Is this fair? Why or why not? What other sports require expensive and up- to- date equipment? READING Thanks for the Ski Pole! 7 CANADIANS THANK NORWEGIAN COACH FOR SARA RENNER SKI POLE DURING RACE ( Canadian Press, February 16, 2006: 06 AM) The kudos keeps coming for the Norwegian ski coach who lent Canadian cross- country skier Sara Renner a pole when hers snapped during [ a cross-country ski race at the Turin Olympic Games]. Renner sent Bjørnar Håkensmoen a bottle of wine. Cross Country Canada has passed on its appreciation. And Norway's Chef de Mission can also expect a letter of thanks from the Canadian Olympic Committee. Thanks to the borrowed pole, Renner and team- mate Beckie Scott went on to win the silver medal. " It was reflex," Håkensmoen said… AboveInnsbruck 1964: Bobsleigh Italia I with Eugenio Monti ( ITA) and Sergio Siorpaes ( ITA) on board. LIVINGFAIRPLAY SECTION 4 THE FIVE EDUCATIONAL VALUES OF OLYMPISM TEACHING VALUES83 STORIES ABOUT FAIR PLAY ACTIONS OF OTHER PEOPLE INSPIRE US ALL. LEARNERS CAN TELL OR WRITE THEIR OWN FAIR PLAY STORIES AFTER READING OR HEARING THE STORIES BELOW. 6 Bobsled is a winter sport that is enjoyed in countries that have cold winters. Children in these countries slide down slippery, snow- covered hillsides on sleds. In the Olympic bobsled competitions, these sleds look like cocoons on runners. The bobsled course is a curving track of pure ice. 7 Canadian Press, 16 February, 2006: 06 AM.