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92TEACHING VALUES SECTION 4 THE FIVE EDUCATIONAL VALUES OF OLYMPISM BEFORE YOU READ – QUESTIONS TO ASK What is racism? How do people who are racist show discrimination? Why are people racist? READING Black and White at the Olympic Games – Friends Forever In the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin there were two outstanding athletes competing in the long jump. One was a German athlete, Luz Long. The other was an African- American, Jesse Owens. A racist government was in power in Germany. Its leader, Adolf Hitler, wanted Luz Long to defeat the American and prove that white people were better than others. In his last jump, Jessie Owens defeated the German. Hitler left the podium before the medal ceremony. Long did not share his leader's prejudice. The two men walked arm in arm off the field. There was no place in the hearts of either man for Hitler's racism. Jesse Owens went on to be the hero of the Berlin Games, winning four gold medals. Long was later killed in the Second World War. Owens said he wasn't bothered by Hitler's actions." I didn't go to Berlin to shake hands with him anyway", was his comment. To put this story into perspective, Germany wasn't the only country in the world where people experienced racism. In another famous quote Owens said," I wasn't invited to shake hands with Hitler. But I wasn't invited to the White House to shake hands with the President either." FOR DISCUSSION Long's action at the Berlin Olympics is sometimes described as courageous and inspiring. Why might some people describe his action as courageous and/ or inspiring? Many people around the world suffer or have suffered because people who come from one race or tribe think they are superior. Why do people sometimes think this way? AboveBerlin 1936: Luz Long ( GER) and Jesse Owens ( USA). LIVINGRESPECT USE THIS STORY AS A WAY TO BEGIN A DISCUSSION ON THE PROBLEMS AND CONSEQUENCES OF RACISM.

TEACHING VALUES AN OLYMPIC EDUCATION TOOLKIT READING " I HAVE A DREAM THAT ONE DAY THIS NATION WILL RISE UP AND LIVE OUT THE TRUE MEANING OF ITS CREED, ' WE HOLD THESE TRUTHS TO BE SELF- EVIDENT: THAT ALL MEN ARE CREATED EQUAL…' I HAVE A DREAM THAT MY FOUR LITTLE CHILDREN WILL ONE DAY LIVE IN A NATION WHERE THEY WILL NOT BE JUDGED BY THE COLOUR OF THEIR SKIN BUT BY THE CONTENT OF THEIR CHARACTER. I HAVE A DREAM TODAY… THIS IS OUR HOPE… WHEN WE LET FREEDOM RING, WHEN WE LET IT RING FROM EVERY VILLAGE AND EVERY HAMLET, FROM EVERY STATE AND EVERY CITY, WE WILL BE ABLE TO SPEED UP THAT DAY WHEN ALL OF GOD'S CHILDREN, BLACK MEN AND WHITE MEN, JEWS AND GENTILES, PROTESTANTS AND CATHOLICS, WILL BE ABLE TO JOIN HANDS AND SING IN THE WORDS OF THE OLD NEGRO SPIRITUAL, ' FREE AT LAST! FREE AT LAST! THANK GOD ALMIGHTY, WE ARE FREE AT LAST!' " FOR DISCUSSION What is the most important message of Dr King's speech? What is his dream? There is a song called," They have to be carefully taught." How are people taught to disrespect or dislike other people? Why are they taught to treat other people with disrespect? What are some of the reasons why there is conflict between people of different races or cultures? What actions could you take today to help other young people find peace and respect in their lives? Below Washington DC, USA, 1963: American civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. ( 1929- 1968) speaking to the crowd at the March on Washington. " IHAVEADREAM" 11 MARTINLUTHERKING SECTION 4 THE FIVE EDUCATIONAL VALUES OF OLYMPISM TEACHING VALUES93 IN THIS SPEECH, MARTIN LUTHER KING JR IS ADDRESSING THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE IN A RALLY IN THE USA AT A TIME WHEN BLACK PEOPLE IN AMERICA WERE TRYING TO REGAIN THEIR HUMAN RIGHTS. THE MESSAGE OF HIS SPEECH HAS MEANING IN MANY PLACES OF THE WORLD WHERE THERE IS CONFLICT BETWEEN PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT RACES, RELIGIONS AND TRADITIONS. 11 Excerpts from a speech delivered on the steps at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington D. C. USA on 28 August, 1963 ( Source: http:// www. usconstitution. net/ dream. html)