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64OLYMPIC REVIEW OLYMPIC RESEARCH CORNER of discrimination of all kinds, the empowerment of women, and the encouragement of a sustainable environment. The major cities of the world have sought and staged Games to excite the world about their character and accomplishments and leave beneficial economic and social legacies. Today, the Olympic Movement remains as concerned as ever about its contribution to society, as the overall theme of the 2009 Congress attests. How well has the Olympic Movement realised the aspirations of Olympism? How can we maximise the benefits from its two primary strategies of intervention - the encouragement of sport and the staging of Games - while minimising the negatives? Among researchers, these questions prompt a healthy debate. Some praise the transforming experiences of athletes, cities and spectators at the time of each and every Olympic Games. Others fear that ' sport for sport's sake' has marginalised Olympism, and that means have supplanted ends. They contend that the explosive growth of sport throughout the world, the tremendous representational status athletes and teams have conferred on national communities, states and corporations and the huge financial rewards that winning has brought to athletes, coaches and entire sports systems have elevated the pursuit of the podium above Coubertin's educational and intercultural goals. Researchers are also divided on whether Games enhance or distort the social priorities of host cities. One challenge is the ' multiple narratives' of the Olympic Movement, with so many diverse sports, activities, cultures and cities involved, that different scholars may be citing completely different phenomena. In terms of the impact upon participants, I recently coordinated a research team from the University of Toronto that reviewed the scholarship for the International Working Group on Sport for Development and Peace. We examined sport's contribution to five social objectives that overlap with Olympism: health, gender equity, child and youth development, health and well- being of persons with disabilities, and conflict reduction and peace- building. In every case, we found we had to carefully qualify the claims that could be made for sport. It may well be that many individuals and communities have experienced the physical and mental toughening and ethical, intercultural learning outcomes intended by Olympic sport, but the scholarship emphasises that such opportunities are not universal, nor are the benefits automatic. For example, the health benefits of sport and physical activity are widely taken for granted. Participation is clearly linked to the reduction of non- communicable diseases such as cardio- vascular disease, diabetes, obesity, some cancers, and osteoporosis. But most of the evidence for these links has been drawn from studies of physical activity, not competitive sport. The literature on sport, children and youth argues for similar cautions. There is ample evidence that sport may contribute to social inclusion, both at the community level and in post- conflict areas. Criminology literature has found evidence that sport- based programmes may make a positive contribution to reducing youth crime as diversionary, rehabilitation and gateway programmes. Youth sport has been linked to educational benefits if physical education is included as part of broad- based educational programmes. Character- building, including enhanced moral behaviour, empathy, reasoning and leadership may be promoted and facilitated through sport. But alongside positive findings are studies that show that opportunity is highly skewed towards upper- class males in most societies, and even where it is available, there may be little or even harmful impact. The benefits are highly dependent on the leadership of the sporting programme, the values promoted therein, and the social context. The outcomes of all sport programmes are affected by, and, in turn, affect, a myriad of social factors/ forces, and cannot be implemented or evaluated in isolation from these conditions. If the Olympic Movement is to be confident that it is achieving the aspirations of Olympism, it has to become much more engaged in the formal monitoring and evaluation ( M& E) of participation in the Olympic sports, the quality of the experience, and the actual educational and social outcomes. Such documentation and analysis is rapidly becoming ' best practice' in other fields of human development, especially education, health, agricultural and rural development, poverty reduction and environmental sustainability. Virtually every agency of the United Nations has now published guidelines about the necessity of M& E in their respective areas. It is no longer good enough to proclaim intention. Given the Olympic Movement's historic commitment to education, its endorsement of ' the practice of sport ( as) a human right', and the launch of the Youth Olympic Games, the IOC needs to determine who actually has opportunities to learn and practice sport, by country/ region, gender, class, age, and ability/ disability, the quality of the resources available ( i. e. are there properly trained leaders, adequate and safe facilities, policies to protect athletes' rights?), and the actual learning outcomes. It should use its considerable influence, world- wide networks and expertise to bring about an effective mapping of policy, participation and resources throughout the world. The NOCs, IFs and WADA should contribute in their respective jurisdictions. What's encouraging in this regard is that recent organising committees are breaking new ground in the monitoring and evaluating their social impact. RightEvidence shows sports programmes can reduce youth crime Below right Vancouver has set ambitious social objectives for next year's Winter Games

Committee Process for London 2012 is building upon these efforts. Results- based M& E is well established within the Olympic Movement. It is clear to this researcher that the Olympic Movement makes significant contributions to societies around the world, through the activities of sport, the staging of Games and the myriad of innovations that are stimulated as a result, in urban planning, architecture, communications, technology, event organisation, security, volunteering, etc. But it is also clear that the extent, quality and context of those contributions are inadequately known, especially in the area Coubertin valued most, namely sport as education. If we are to learn from our experiences and incorporate them into policy and practice, we need better information. As the Olympic Movement strengthens its commitment to youth sport, it is time that it implemented a rigorous strategy of monitoring and evaluation. I would hope that the endorsement of such a strategy would be one of the outcomes of the Olympic Congress in Copenhagen. ¦ Bruce Kidd is Professor and Dean, Faculty of Physical Education and Health, University of Toronto. He competed in track and field in the 1964 Olympic Games, and was the founding chair of the Olympic Academy of Canada. OLYMPIC REVIEW65 Drawing upon Agenda 21, the IOC's 1999 statement of principles for sustainable development, the Vancouver Winter Olympic and Paralympic Organising Committee ( VANOC) has set ambitious social objectives for itself under various headings - Environmental Stewardship and Impact Reduction; Social Inclusion and Responsibility; Aboriginal Participation and Collaboration; Economic Benefits; Sport for Sustainable Living and Accountability - and has committed to reporting annually on its performance. In addition, it is working with local researchers and the IOC on the Olympic Games Impact ( OGI) study, tracking and analysing some 400 metrics relating to the effect of the 2010 Games. The Organising